Butter and butter oil classification by PTR-MS

S.M. van Ruth, A.H. Koot, W. Akkermans, N. Araghipour, M. Rozijn, M.A.H. Baltussen, A. Wisthaler, T.D. Mark, R. Frankhuizen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    44 Citations (Scopus)


    The potential of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) as a tool for classification of milk fats was evaluated in relation to quality and authentication issues. Butters and butter oils were subjected to heat and off-flavouring treatments in order to create sensorially defective samples. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by means of PTR-MS analysis, sensory analysis and classical chemical analysis. Subsequently, partial least square-discriminant analysis models (PLS-DA) were fitted to predict the matrix (butter/butter oil) and the sensory grades of the samples from their PTR-MS data. Using a 10-fold cross-validation scheme, 84% of the samples were successfully classified into butter and butter oil classes. Regarding sensory quality, 89% of the samples were correctly classified. As the milk fats were fairly successfully classified by the combination of PTR-MS and PLS-DA, this combination seems a promising approach with potential applications in quality control and control of regulations.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)307-317
    Number of pages11
    JournalEuropean Food Research and Technology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • reaction-mass-spectrometry
    • sweet cream butter
    • trace gas-analysis
    • volatile compounds
    • food authenticity
    • dairy-products
    • flavor
    • quality
    • aroma


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