Bulk pH and Carbon Source Are Key Factors for Calcium Phosphate Granulation

Jorge Ricardo Cunha, Sara Morais, Joana C. Silva, Renata D. Van Der Weijden, Lucía Hernández Leal, Grietje Zeeman, Cees J.N. Buisman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) from high-strength wastewater is an opportunity to reduce the natural phosphorus (P) scarcity, geographic imbalances of P reserves, and eutrophication. Formation of CaP granules was previously observed in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating source separated black water and is enhanced by Ca2+ addition. However, the required operating conditions and influent composition for CaP granulation are still unknown. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated that the carbon source and bulk pH are crucial parameters for the formation and growth of CaP granules in a UASB reactor, operating at relatively low upflow velocity (<1 cm h-1). Degradation of glucose yielded sufficient biomass (microbial cells and extracellular biopolymers) to cover crystal and amorphous calcium phosphate [Cax(PO4)y], forming CaP granules. Influent only containing volatile fatty acids as the carbon source did not generate CaP granules. Moreover, bulk pH between 7.0 and 7.5 was crucial for the enrichment of Cax(PO4)y in the granules over bulk precipitation. Bulk pH 8 reduced the Cax(PO4)y enrichment in granules of >1.4 mm diameter from 9 to 5 wt % P. Moreover, for bulk pH 7.5, co-precipitation of CaCO3 with Cax(PO4)y was reduced.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1334–1343
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume53
Issue number3
Early online date1 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019

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Granulation
Carbon
calcium
phosphate
carbon
sludge
Eutrophication
Coprecipitation
Phosphorus
eutrophication
Wastewater
phosphorus
wastewater
Recovery
Water
Chemical analysis
calcium phosphate
water
reactor

Cite this

Cunha, Jorge Ricardo ; Morais, Sara ; Silva, Joana C. ; Van Der Weijden, Renata D. ; Hernández Leal, Lucía ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees J.N. / Bulk pH and Carbon Source Are Key Factors for Calcium Phosphate Granulation. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2019 ; Vol. 53, No. 3. pp. 1334–1343.
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title = "Bulk pH and Carbon Source Are Key Factors for Calcium Phosphate Granulation",
abstract = "Recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) from high-strength wastewater is an opportunity to reduce the natural phosphorus (P) scarcity, geographic imbalances of P reserves, and eutrophication. Formation of CaP granules was previously observed in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating source separated black water and is enhanced by Ca2+ addition. However, the required operating conditions and influent composition for CaP granulation are still unknown. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated that the carbon source and bulk pH are crucial parameters for the formation and growth of CaP granules in a UASB reactor, operating at relatively low upflow velocity (<1 cm h-1). Degradation of glucose yielded sufficient biomass (microbial cells and extracellular biopolymers) to cover crystal and amorphous calcium phosphate [Cax(PO4)y], forming CaP granules. Influent only containing volatile fatty acids as the carbon source did not generate CaP granules. Moreover, bulk pH between 7.0 and 7.5 was crucial for the enrichment of Cax(PO4)y in the granules over bulk precipitation. Bulk pH 8 reduced the Cax(PO4)y enrichment in granules of >1.4 mm diameter from 9 to 5 wt {\%} P. Moreover, for bulk pH 7.5, co-precipitation of CaCO3 with Cax(PO4)y was reduced.",
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Bulk pH and Carbon Source Are Key Factors for Calcium Phosphate Granulation. / Cunha, Jorge Ricardo; Morais, Sara; Silva, Joana C.; Van Der Weijden, Renata D.; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J.N.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 53, No. 3, 02.2019, p. 1334–1343.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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T1 - Bulk pH and Carbon Source Are Key Factors for Calcium Phosphate Granulation

AU - Cunha, Jorge Ricardo

AU - Morais, Sara

AU - Silva, Joana C.

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AU - Hernández Leal, Lucía

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N2 - Recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) from high-strength wastewater is an opportunity to reduce the natural phosphorus (P) scarcity, geographic imbalances of P reserves, and eutrophication. Formation of CaP granules was previously observed in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating source separated black water and is enhanced by Ca2+ addition. However, the required operating conditions and influent composition for CaP granulation are still unknown. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated that the carbon source and bulk pH are crucial parameters for the formation and growth of CaP granules in a UASB reactor, operating at relatively low upflow velocity (<1 cm h-1). Degradation of glucose yielded sufficient biomass (microbial cells and extracellular biopolymers) to cover crystal and amorphous calcium phosphate [Cax(PO4)y], forming CaP granules. Influent only containing volatile fatty acids as the carbon source did not generate CaP granules. Moreover, bulk pH between 7.0 and 7.5 was crucial for the enrichment of Cax(PO4)y in the granules over bulk precipitation. Bulk pH 8 reduced the Cax(PO4)y enrichment in granules of >1.4 mm diameter from 9 to 5 wt % P. Moreover, for bulk pH 7.5, co-precipitation of CaCO3 with Cax(PO4)y was reduced.

AB - Recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) from high-strength wastewater is an opportunity to reduce the natural phosphorus (P) scarcity, geographic imbalances of P reserves, and eutrophication. Formation of CaP granules was previously observed in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating source separated black water and is enhanced by Ca2+ addition. However, the required operating conditions and influent composition for CaP granulation are still unknown. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated that the carbon source and bulk pH are crucial parameters for the formation and growth of CaP granules in a UASB reactor, operating at relatively low upflow velocity (<1 cm h-1). Degradation of glucose yielded sufficient biomass (microbial cells and extracellular biopolymers) to cover crystal and amorphous calcium phosphate [Cax(PO4)y], forming CaP granules. Influent only containing volatile fatty acids as the carbon source did not generate CaP granules. Moreover, bulk pH between 7.0 and 7.5 was crucial for the enrichment of Cax(PO4)y in the granules over bulk precipitation. Bulk pH 8 reduced the Cax(PO4)y enrichment in granules of >1.4 mm diameter from 9 to 5 wt % P. Moreover, for bulk pH 7.5, co-precipitation of CaCO3 with Cax(PO4)y was reduced.

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