Bronnen, bronbeken en bronbossen van Nederland, in het bijzonder die van de Veluwezoom : een plantensociologische en oecologische studie

F.M. Maas

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU


The study was of some aspects of the occurrence of springs in the Netherlands, in particular those of the Veluwe Fringe, but also in Twente and south Limburg. These aspects were compared with those in Germany, France, Belgium and Austria. Along the Veluwe Fringe water percolates through layers of gravel or coarse sand to the impermeable layers of clay or sand and mud be neath; the springs rise where the junction of these layers reaches the surface. Many springs have arisen through excavations higher in the. valleys. Most springs in south Limburg arise where permeable water-holding calcareous layers meet impermeable layers of sand or clay. The temperature and the oxygen content of the large springs of the Veluwe Fringe proved to be constant, those of the smaller ones a bit less so. Their water proved to be generally rich in nitrate, with least solutes near preglacial sands and richest in minerals near loess. In south Limburg it was shown to be very rich in lime.

Discussion of microclimate and physical and chemical status of the soil is followed by an extensive description of plant communities, ecology of the woods, the undergrowth on the forest flushes and of plants in the actual springs and their streams.

Original languageDutch
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
  • Venema, H.J., Promotor
Award date11 Dec 1959
Place of PublicationWageningen
Publication statusPublished - 1959
Externally publishedYes


  • plant ecology
  • springs (water)
  • ecohydrology
  • natural areas
  • soil plant relationships
  • veluwe
  • gelderland

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