Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

Philippa Prentice, Ken K. Ong, Marieke H. Schoemaker, Eric A.F. van Tol, Jacques Vervoort, Ieuan A. Hughes, Carlo L. Acerini, David B. Dunger

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Abstract

Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by 1H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. Results: In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. Conclusion: HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)641-647
JournalActa Paediatrica : International Journal of Paediatrics
Volume105
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Human Milk
Food
Growth
Body Mass Index
Fats
Carbohydrates
Weight Gain
Adiposity
Milk
Mothers
Anthropometry
Proteins

Keywords

  • Breast milk
  • Growth
  • Macronutrients
  • Nutrition
  • Weight

Cite this

Prentice, P., Ong, K. K., Schoemaker, M. H., van Tol, E. A. F., Vervoort, J., Hughes, I. A., ... Dunger, D. B. (2016). Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth. Acta Paediatrica : International Journal of Paediatrics, 105, 641-647. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.13362
Prentice, Philippa ; Ong, Ken K. ; Schoemaker, Marieke H. ; van Tol, Eric A.F. ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Hughes, Ieuan A. ; Acerini, Carlo L. ; Dunger, David B. / Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth. In: Acta Paediatrica : International Journal of Paediatrics. 2016 ; Vol. 105. pp. 641-647.
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abstract = "Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by 1H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and {\%}macronutrients were determined. Results: In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher {\%}fat, lower {\%}carbohydrate and lower {\%}protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM {\%}fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas {\%}carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM {\%}protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. Conclusion: HM analysis showed wide variation in {\%}macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth.",
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Prentice, P, Ong, KK, Schoemaker, MH, van Tol, EAF, Vervoort, J, Hughes, IA, Acerini, CL & Dunger, DB 2016, 'Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth' Acta Paediatrica : International Journal of Paediatrics, vol. 105, pp. 641-647. https://doi.org/10.1111/apa.13362

Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth. / Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; van Tol, Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

In: Acta Paediatrica : International Journal of Paediatrics, Vol. 105, 2016, p. 641-647.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

AU - Prentice, Philippa

AU - Ong, Ken K.

AU - Schoemaker, Marieke H.

AU - van Tol, Eric A.F.

AU - Vervoort, Jacques

AU - Hughes, Ieuan A.

AU - Acerini, Carlo L.

AU - Dunger, David B.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by 1H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. Results: In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. Conclusion: HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth.

AB - Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk samples were collected at ages 4-8 weeks from 614 mothers participating in a representative birth cohort, with repeated infancy anthropometry. HM triglyceride (fat), lipid analytes and lactose (carbohydrate) were measured by 1H-NMR, and protein content by the Dumas method. TCC and %macronutrients were determined. Results: In 614 HM samples, fat content was as follows: [median(IQR)]: 2.6 (1.7-3.6) g/100 mL, carbohydrate: 8.6 (8.2-8.8) g/100 mL, protein: 1.2 (1.1-1.2) g/100 mL; TCC: 61.8 (53.7-71.3) kcal/100 mL. HM of mothers exclusively breast feeding vs. mixed feeding was more calorific with higher %fat, lower %carbohydrate and lower %protein. Higher HM TCC was associated with lower 12-months body mass index (BMI)/adiposity, and lower 3-12 months gains in weight/BMI. HM %fat was inversely related to 3-12 months gains in weight, BMI and adiposity, whereas %carbohydrate was positively related to these measures. HM %protein was positively related to 12-months BMI. Conclusion: HM analysis showed wide variation in %macronutrients. Although data on milk intakes were unavailable, our findings suggest functional relevance of HM milk composition to infant growth.

KW - Breast milk

KW - Growth

KW - Macronutrients

KW - Nutrition

KW - Weight

U2 - 10.1111/apa.13362

DO - 10.1111/apa.13362

M3 - Article

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SP - 641

EP - 647

JO - Acta Paediatrica : International Journal of Paediatrics

JF - Acta Paediatrica : International Journal of Paediatrics

SN - 0803-5253

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