BPA, BADGE and analogues: A new multi-analyte LC-ESI-MS/MS method for their determination and their in vitro (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic properties

Stefan P.J. van Leeuwen*, Toine F.H. Bovee, Mohamad Awchi, Mirjam D. Klijnstra, Astrid R.M. Hamers, Ron L.A.P. Hoogenboom, Liza Portier, Arjen Gerssen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Information on the occurrence and endocrine potencies of analogues of bisphenol A (BPA) and diglycidyl ester derivatives (BDGEs) of BPA and BPF is limited. Such information is, however, important as the current debate on BPA and the lowered BPA migration limit in Europe may provide an incentive for application of structural analogues. A new sensitive multi-analyte LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed to measure 17 bisphenols (BPs) and 6 BDGEs in food, beverages and drinkware. Yeast based bioassays were used to determine the in vitro (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic properties of these and 7 additional BPs and BDGEs. Drinkware of polycarbonate and other materials were analysed for BPs and BDGEs. Only BPA and BPS and both at trace levels were found in a few containers. A limited number of (canned) foods and beverages were also analysed. BPA was the most frequently detected BP (ranged from 0.03 ng mL−1 in a beverage sample to 68 ng g−1 in food). Other BPs detected were BPS, 2,2-BPF and 4,4-BPF. In addition BADGE, BADGE.HCl, BADGE.H2O and BADGE.2H2O were detected from 0.08 ng mL−1 in a beverage sample to 3.3 ng g−1 in food. In vitro testing showed that most BPs exhibited an equal or higher estrogenic potency than BPA and most of them also showed a higher anti-androgenic potency, i.e. BPB, BPCl, BPC, BPE, 4,4-BPF, BPP, BPAF, and BPTMC. Some BPs and BDGEs were not estrogenic, but showed an anti-estrogenic effect and were anti-androgenic too. BPS was only weakly estrogenic and BADGE.2H2O and BFDGE.2H2O showed no in vitro activity. The present data show that in addition to BPA, other BPs and BDGEs can be present in food and drinks, some displaying in vitro endocrine activities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)246-253
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019


  • Androgenic
  • BP-analogues
  • BPA
  • Estrogenic
  • In vitro
  • LC-MS/MS
  • Multimethod


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