Background - A higher eating rate leads to a higher food intake, possibly through shorter orosensory exposure to food. The transit time in the oral cavity and the number of bites or sips per gram (inversely related to bite or sip size) are main contributors that affect eating rate. The separate role of these two aspects on satiation and on orosensory exposure needs further clarification. Objective - The objective of the first study was to investigate contributions of the number of sips per gram (sips/g) and oral transit time per gram (s/g) on ad libitum intake. The objective of the second study was to investigate both aspects on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram food. Methods - In study 1, 56 healthy male subjects consumed soup where the number of sips and oral transit time differed by a factor three respectively: 6.7 vs. 20 sips/100 g, and 20 vs. 60 s/100 g (2 × 2 cross-over design). Eating rate of 60 g/min was kept constant. In study 2, the effects of number of sips and oral transit time (equal as in study 1) on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram soup were measured by time intensity functions by 22 different healthy subjects. Results - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced ad libitum intake by respectively ~22% (F(1, 157) = 55.9, P <0.001) and ~8% (F(1, 157) = 7.4, P = 0.007). Higher number of sips led to faster increase in fullness per gram food (F(1, 157) = 24.1, P <0.001) (study 1). Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time both increased the orosensory exposure per gram food (F(1, 63) = 23.8, P <0.001) and (F(1, 63) = 19.0, P <0.001), respectively (study 2). Conclusion - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced food intake, possibly through the increased the orosensory exposure per gram food. Designing foods that will be consumed with small sips or bites and long oral transit time may be effective in reducing energy intake.
- eating rate
- bite size