Blood pressure effect of chronic coffee and caffeine intake

M. Noordzij, C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal, D.E. Grobbee, F.J. Kok, J.M. Geleijnse

Research output: Contribution to journalAbstractAcademic


Coffee is a widely consumed beverage and small health effects of substances in
coffee could have large public health consequences. Evidence exists for a blood pressure raising effect of caffeine. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of coffee and caffeine intake to examine the long-term effect on blood pressure (BP). Methods: Relevant publications between 1966 and December 2002 were identified from MEDLINE and Current Contents. Meta-analysis, using a random-effects model, included 16 randomized controlled trials of coffee or caffeine and BP with a duration of at least 1 week (25 strata, 1,282 participants). Results: Coffee and caffeine intake caused a significant rise of 2.04 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 2.99) in systolic BP and 0.73 mmHg (0.14 to 1.31) in diastolic BP. When coffee trials (18 strata, median dose: 725 ml/day) and caffeine trials (7 strata, median dose: 410 mg/day) were analyzed separately, BP elevations (adjusted for confounders) appeared to be larger for caffeine (systolic: 4.16 mmHg [2.13 to 6.20]; diastolic: 2.41 mmHg
[0.98 to 3.84]) than for coffee (1.22 mmHg [0.52 to 1.92] and 0.49 mmHg [-0.06 to 1.04], respectively). Conclusions: Habitual intake of coffee and, in particular, caffeine may increase BP. A prudent intake of caffeine-containing beverages and foods may contribute to the population-based prevention of hypertension.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)66 (P274)-66 (P274)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Event44th Annual conference on cardiovascular disease epidemiology and prevention - San Francisco, Canada
Duration: 3 Mar 20046 Mar 2004


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