Bivalve Aquaculture Carrying Capacity: Concepts and Assessment Tools

Aad C. Smaal, L.A. Van Duren

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The carrying capacity concept for bivalve aquaculture is used to assess
production potential of culture areas, and to address possible effects of the culture for the environment and for other users. Production potential is depending on physical and production carrying capacity of the ecosystem, while ecological and social carrying capacity determine to what extent the production capacity can be realized. According to current definitions, the ecological carrying capacity is the stocking or farm density of the exploited population above which unacceptable environmental impacts become apparent, and the social capacity is the level of farm development above which unacceptable social impacts are manifested. It can be disputed to what extent social and ecological capacities differ, as unacceptable impacts are social constructs. In the approach of carrying capacity, focus is often on avoiding adverse impacts of bivalve aquaculture. However, bivalve populations also have positive impacts on the ecosystem, such as stimulation of primary production through filtration and nutrient regeneration. These ecosystem services deserve more attention in proper estimation of carrying capacity and therefore we focus on both positive and
negative feedbacks by the bivalves on the ecosystem. We review tools that are available to quantify carrying capacity. This varies from simple indices to complex models. We present case studies of the use of clearance and grazing ratio’s as simple carrying capacity indices. Applications depend on specific management questions in the respective areas, the availability of data and the type of decisions that need to be made. For making decisions on bivalve aquaculture, standards, threshold values or levels of acceptable change (LAC) are used. The FAO framework for aquaculture is formulated as The Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture. It implies stakeholder involvement, and a carrying capacity management where commercial stocks attribute in a balanced way to production, ecological and social goals. Simulation models are being developed as tools to predict the integrated effect of various levels of bivalve aquaculture for specific management goals, such as improved ecosystem resilience. In practice, bivalve aquaculture management is confronted with different competing stocks of cultured, wild, restoration and invasive origin. Scenario models have been reviewed that are used for finding the balance between maximizing production capacity and optimizing ecological carrying capacity in areas with bivalve aquaculture.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationGoods and Services of Marine Bivalves
EditorsAad C. Smaal, Joao G. Ferreira, Jon Grant, Jens K. Petersen, Øivind Strand
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Pages451-483
ISBN (Electronic)9783319967769
ISBN (Print)9783319967752
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Fingerprint

carrying capacity
aquaculture
bivalve
social impact
ecosystem
farm
ecosystem resilience
ecosystem approach
Food and Agricultural Organization
ecosystem service
primary production
stakeholder
environmental impact
regeneration
grazing
decision making
nutrient
simulation

Cite this

Smaal, A. C., & Van Duren, L. A. (2019). Bivalve Aquaculture Carrying Capacity: Concepts and Assessment Tools. In A. C. Smaal, J. G. Ferreira, J. Grant, J. K. Petersen, & Ø. Strand (Eds.), Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves (pp. 451-483). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96776-9_23
Smaal, Aad C. ; Van Duren, L.A. / Bivalve Aquaculture Carrying Capacity : Concepts and Assessment Tools. Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves. editor / Aad C. Smaal ; Joao G. Ferreira ; Jon Grant ; Jens K. Petersen ; Øivind Strand. Springer International Publishing, 2019. pp. 451-483
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Smaal, AC & Van Duren, LA 2019, Bivalve Aquaculture Carrying Capacity: Concepts and Assessment Tools. in AC Smaal, JG Ferreira, J Grant, JK Petersen & Ø Strand (eds), Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves. Springer International Publishing, pp. 451-483. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96776-9_23

Bivalve Aquaculture Carrying Capacity : Concepts and Assessment Tools. / Smaal, Aad C.; Van Duren, L.A.

Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves. ed. / Aad C. Smaal; Joao G. Ferreira; Jon Grant; Jens K. Petersen; Øivind Strand. Springer International Publishing, 2019. p. 451-483.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

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AB - The carrying capacity concept for bivalve aquaculture is used to assessproduction potential of culture areas, and to address possible effects of the culture for the environment and for other users. Production potential is depending on physical and production carrying capacity of the ecosystem, while ecological and social carrying capacity determine to what extent the production capacity can be realized. According to current definitions, the ecological carrying capacity is the stocking or farm density of the exploited population above which unacceptable environmental impacts become apparent, and the social capacity is the level of farm development above which unacceptable social impacts are manifested. It can be disputed to what extent social and ecological capacities differ, as unacceptable impacts are social constructs. In the approach of carrying capacity, focus is often on avoiding adverse impacts of bivalve aquaculture. However, bivalve populations also have positive impacts on the ecosystem, such as stimulation of primary production through filtration and nutrient regeneration. These ecosystem services deserve more attention in proper estimation of carrying capacity and therefore we focus on both positive andnegative feedbacks by the bivalves on the ecosystem. We review tools that are available to quantify carrying capacity. This varies from simple indices to complex models. We present case studies of the use of clearance and grazing ratio’s as simple carrying capacity indices. Applications depend on specific management questions in the respective areas, the availability of data and the type of decisions that need to be made. For making decisions on bivalve aquaculture, standards, threshold values or levels of acceptable change (LAC) are used. The FAO framework for aquaculture is formulated as The Ecosystem Approach to Aquaculture. It implies stakeholder involvement, and a carrying capacity management where commercial stocks attribute in a balanced way to production, ecological and social goals. Simulation models are being developed as tools to predict the integrated effect of various levels of bivalve aquaculture for specific management goals, such as improved ecosystem resilience. In practice, bivalve aquaculture management is confronted with different competing stocks of cultured, wild, restoration and invasive origin. Scenario models have been reviewed that are used for finding the balance between maximizing production capacity and optimizing ecological carrying capacity in areas with bivalve aquaculture.

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Smaal AC, Van Duren LA. Bivalve Aquaculture Carrying Capacity: Concepts and Assessment Tools. In Smaal AC, Ferreira JG, Grant J, Petersen JK, Strand Ø, editors, Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves. Springer International Publishing. 2019. p. 451-483 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-96776-9_23