Biotransformation of limonene by bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and plants

W.A. Duetz, H.J. Bouwmeester, J.B. Beilen, B. Witholt

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    200 Citations (Scopus)


    The past 5 years have seen significant progress in the field of limonene biotransformation, especially with regard to the regiospecificity of microbial biocatalysts. Whereas earlier only regiospecific biocatalysts for the 1,2 position (limonene-1,2-diol) and the 8-position (¿±-terpineol) were available, recent reports describe microbial biocatalysts specifically hydroxylating the 3-position (isopiperitenol), 6-position (carveol and carvone), and 7-position (perillyl alcohol, perillylaaldehyde, and perillic acid). The present review also includes the considerable progress made in the characterization of plant P-450 limonene hydroxylases and the cloning of the encoding genes.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)269-277
    JournalApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology
    Publication statusPublished - 2003


    • microbiological transformations
    • bacillus-stearothermophilus
    • pseudomonas-putida
    • soil pseudomonad
    • functional expression
    • degradation pathway
    • escherichia-coli
    • selenium dioxide
    • perillic acid
    • bioconversion


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