This chapter describes the biological removal of sulphur compounds from gas streams. First, an overview is given of the toxicity of sulphur compounds to animals and humans whereafter biological and industrial formation routes for (organic) sulphur compounds are given. Microbial degradation routes of volatile organic sulphur compounds under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions are presented. Finally, the most commonly applied processes for sulphur removal from gaseous streams are discussed and an overview is given of operating experiences for biological gas treatment systems. The chapter concludes with some remarks on future developments.