This study aimed to estimate the exposure and related health risks of phthalates, and to assess the health risks from combined exposure to three of the phthalates sharing the same mode of action (anti-androgenicity) in children. We determined the internal exposure of 56 Iranian children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years by analyzing seven urinary metabolites of five phthalates. The estimated daily intake values derived from the biomonitoring data ranged from 0.01 µg/kg bw/day for butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), to 17.85 µg/kg bw/day for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The risk assessment revealed that not only the exposure to the individual phthalates, but also the combined exposure to the three anti-androgenic phthalates (DEHP, DBP, BBP) did not raise a safety concern (hazard index values averaged 0.2). The range of maximum cumulative ratio values varied from around 1 for most individuals to around 2 in some individuals, indicating that the combined exposures were dominated by one and in some cases by two of the three anti-androgenic phthalates, especially dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and/or DEHP. Based on biomonitoring data, the overall combined exposure of Iranian children to phthalates does not raise a concern, while reduction of exposure is best focused on DEHP and DBP that showed the highest hazard quotient.
|Journal||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|Publication status||Published - 23 Oct 2018|
- anti-androgenic phthalates
- daily intake (DI)
- human biomonitoring (HBM)
- maximum cumulative ratio (MCR)