Biomarkers of satiation and satiety: a review

W.A.M. Blom, C. de Graaf, P.A.M. Smeets, A. Stafleu, H.F.J. Hendriks

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperAcademicpeer-review


Biomarkers of satiety (meal initiation) and satiation (meal termination) are useful in understanding the regulation of food intake and energy balance, and could be useful as a tool to measure the satiating effi ciency of foods. Aims: To critically summarize published data on the relationship between biological measures, and either appetite or food intake. The applicability of these biological measures as biomarkers of satiety and satiation is evaluated. Methods: We made a distinction between biomarkers of satiation and satiety, and between central (CNS) and peripheral markers. The evaluation criteria were feasibility, validity, sensitivity, specifi city and reproducibility. We evaluated in total 123 original research publications. Papers were identifi ed using the Medline database. The closing date for searches was October 15, 2003. Conclusions: Physical-chemical measures related to stomach distension, CCK and GLP-1 are peripheral biomarkers related to satiation. As yet, CNS measures related to satiation cannot serve as biomarkers, while the measures (carried out with fMRI and PET) are not yet feasible. Blood glucose declines in the short-term (
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication13th European Congress on Obesity, Prague, Czech Republic, 26-29 Mat 2004
PagesS214 (T7d:P7d-007)
Publication statusPublished - 2004


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