Biological nitrogen fixation, forms and regulating factors

K.E. Giller, P. Mapfumo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Nitrogen fixation is the basis of the global N cycle. Therefore it is not surprising that the ability to fix atmospheric N2 evolved in the "primeval soup" and is deeply rooted in the evolutionary tree of life. Despite this, nitrogenase remains an enzyme exclusive to prokaryotes; no eukaryote has been described that can fix N2 except through a symbiotic relationship. Members of both the Archaea and Eubacteria can fix N2 and even within the Eubacteria, nitrogenase is widely distributed among the various bacterial divisions (1).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Soil Science / Rattan Lal
PublisherThe Ohio State University
ISBN (Print)9780824306342
Publication statusPublished - 2002

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