Biological control of Tipula paludosa (Diptera : Nematocera) using entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp.) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis

J. Østergaard, C. Belau, O. Strauch, A. Ester, K. van Rozen, R.U. Ehlers

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    25 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) is the major insect pest in grassland in Northwest Europe and has been accidentally introduced to North America. Oviposition occurs during late August and first instars hatch from September until mid-October. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to assess the control potential of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) (Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) against T. paludosa and to investigate whether synergistic effects can be exploited by simultaneous application of nematodes and Bti. Results indicate that the early instars of the insect are most susceptible to nematodes and Bti. In the field the neonates prevail when temperatures tend to drop below 10 °C. S. carpocapsae, reaching >80% control, is more effective against young stages of T. paludosa than S. feltiae (80% with 0.5 million nematodes m¿2 at soil temperatures ranging between 3 and 18 °C. Results with Bti were strongly influenced by the larval stage and concentration. Against early instars in autumn between 74 and 83% control was achieved with 13 kg ha¿1 Bti of 5,700 International Toxic Units (ITUs) and 20 kg ha¿1 of 3,000 ITUs. Applications in spring against third and fourth instars achieved between 0 and 32% reduction. The results indicate that application of Bti and nematodes will only be successful and economically feasible during the early instars and that the success of S. carpocapsae is dependent on temperatures >12 °C. Synergistic effects between S. carpocapsae and Bti require more detailed investigations in the field to determine maximal effect
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)525-531
    JournalBiological Control
    Volume39
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2006

    Keywords

    • oleracea
    • larvae

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