Biological assessment of effects of combined sewer overflows and storm water discharges.

L. Lijklema, R.M.M. Roijackers, J.G.M. Cuppen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic


    The biological effects of discharges from combined or separated sewer systems are difficult to assess or to predict due to variahilities in concentrations, environmental conditions, morphometry, susceptibility of organisms, seasonality and other factors. A general discussion of the problem results in an outline of two approaches. The first approach is to generalize field experiences and some examples of results are presented and explained. Notably site-specific conditions are shown to overshadow effects of discharges for many of the biological components in the ecosystem. The secend approach is to perform toxicity tests which account for the temporal and spatial scales encountered in the field and for the relevant concentratien levels.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationUrban discharges and receiving water quality impacts
    EditorsJ.B. Ellis
    Publication statusPublished - 1989


    • biocoenosis
    • ecology
    • hydrology
    • rivers
    • streams
    • canals
    • water
    • discharge
    • sewerage
    • systems
    • spillways
    • pollution
    • aquatic organisms
    • surface water
    • water pollution
    • water quality
    • netherlands
    • aquatic ecosystems
    • ecotoxicology
    • bioaccumulation
    • ecohydrology

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