Bioequivalence of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from foods enriched with a novel vegetable-based omega-3 delivery system compared to gel capsules: a randomized controlled cross-over acute trial

Welma Stonehouse*, Bradley Klingner, Rachel Tso, Pey Sze Teo, Netsanet Shiferaw Terefe, Ciarán G. Forde

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate bioavailability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from foods enriched with novel vegetable-based encapsulated algal oil across Australian and Singaporean populations. Methods: 27 men (n = 12 Australian European; n = 15 Singaporean Chinese), 21–50 yr; 18–27.5 kg/m2, with low habitual intake of omega-3 LCPUFA completed a multicentre randomised controlled acute 3-way cross-over single-blind trial. They consumed, in random order 1-week apart after an overnight fast, standard breakfast meals including 400 mg docosahexanoic acid (DHA) from either extruded rice snacks or soup both containing cauliflower-encapsulated HiDHA® algal oil or gel capsules containing HiDHA® algal oil. Blood samples for analysis of plasma DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were taken pre-meal and after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h. Primary analyses comparing 24-h incremental area under the plasma DHA, EPA and DHA + EPA concentration (µg/ml) curves (iAUC0-24 h) between test foods were performed using linear mixed models by including ethnicity as an interaction term. Results: Plasma iAUC0-24 h did not differ significantly between test foods (adjusted mean [95% CI] plasma DHA + EPA: extruded rice snack, 8391 [5550, 11233] µg/mL*hour; soup, 8862 [6021, 11704] µg/mL*hour; capsules, 11,068 [8226, 13910] µg/mL*hour, P = 0.31) and did not differ significantly between Australian European and Singaporean Chinese (treatment*ethnicity interaction, P = 0.43). Conclusion: The vegetable-based omega-3 LCPUFA delivery system did not affect bioavailability of omega-3 LCPUFA in healthy young Australian and Singaporean men as assessed after a single meal over 24 h, nor was bioavailability affected by ethnicity. This novel delivery system may be an effective way to fortify foods/beverages with omega-3 LCPUFA. Trial registration: The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04610983), date of registration, 22 November 2020.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2129-2141
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume61
Issue number4
Early online date18 Jan 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • Algal oil
  • Bioavailability
  • Bioequivalence
  • Docosahexaenoic acid
  • Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • Vegetable-based delivery system

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