The communities living in the humid forests of southern Cameroon – Bantu, and Baka and Bagyeli pygmies – have always considered wild edible fungi (WEF) as important sources of food and medicine. However, little information is available on the diversity and ecology of wild edible fungi in Cameroon. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate and acquire endogenous knowledge on the diversity of the main wild edible and medicinal fungi in Cameroon’s humid forests. The fungi species were collected during mycological excursions and described through structured and semi-structured surveys conducted in some twenty sites in five regions of southern Cameroon. Ninety-four WEF taxa were identified, belonging to 32 families and 41 genera. About 61.7% were saprotrophic taxa, 21.3% ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and 17% of the Termitomyces genus, the latter being the commonly collected and consumed. The high diversity of the fungi was reflected in their varied range of habitats and ecological niches. The most prized WEF are the saprotropic Armillaria camerounensis and Volvariella volvacea species, all Termitomyces species and chanterelles. Most of these fungi are collected as food. The twenty-odd ectomycorrhizal species develop in symbiosis with the roots of forest tree species of 13 genera in the Cesalpiniaceae and Phyllantaceae families. Overall, wild edible fungi in Cameroon provide two main productive ecosystem services: supplies of food and medicine, and revenues. Research is clearly needed on the biodiversity of WEF and medicinal species in Cameroon’s humid forests and on possibilities for composting agricultural waste to grow V. volvacea mushrooms.