Biochemical and functional characterisation of casein and whey protein hydrolysates : a study on the correlations between biochemical and functional properties using multivariate data analysis

C. van der Ven

Research output: Thesisinternal PhD, WU


<p>Whey protein and sodium caseinate were hydrolysed with commercially available enzyme preparations. The resulting hydrolysates were characterised using several analytical characterisation methods and by determination of several functional properties. Subsequently, correlations between the biochemical characteristics themselves and between biochemical and functional properties were studied using multivariate regression analysis.</p><p>Biochemical characteristics of hydrolysates were determined using unifactorial methods like the degree of hydrolysis, and by multifactorial methods, <em>i.e</em> . reversed phase (RPC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy appeared to discriminate most effectively between hydrolysates made from different protein sources and classes of proteolytic enzymes, followed by RPC and SEC.</p><p>Emulsion and foam properties of hydrolysates were similar or inferior to those of the parental proteins. Casein hydrolysates generally showed better emulsion and foam forming ability than whey protein hydrolysates. Foam forming ability of whey protein hydrolysates was correlated to the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the peptides, showing that especially peptides with MW of 3-5 kDa contributed to foam forming ability.</p><p>Concerning prevention of emulsion instability due to coalescence it was shown that peptides with a molecular weight larger than 2 kDa are needed. Foam stabilising ability of casein hydrolysates also depended on the MWD of hydrolysates, but higher molecular weight peptides, <em>i.e.</em> larger than 7 kDa, were needed to obtain good foam stability.</p><p>The ability of the three multifactorial characterisation methods (SEC, RPC, FTIR spectroscopy) to predict functional properties was investigated. It appeared that SEC profiles were able to predict emulsion and foam stability of all hydrolysates, as well as foam forming ability, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibiting ability and bitterness of whey hydrolysates. RPC profiles were also able to predict these properties and additionally predicted solubility and bitterness of casein hydrolysates. FTIR spectra were best suited to predict a variety of hydrolysate properties, since apart from the before-mentioned properties, the spectra can also be used to predict emulsion forming ability and to improve prediction of bitterness of hydrolysates.</p><p>Finally, the influence of hydrolysis process conditions on ACE inhibiting ability of whey hydrolysates was investigated, showing that ACE inhibiting activity could be optimised by using process optimisation techniques like experimental design and response surface optimisation.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Wageningen University
  • Voragen, A.G.J., Promotor, External person
  • Gruppen, H., Promotor
  • de Bont, D.B.A., Promotor, External person
Award date4 Jun 2002
Place of PublicationS.l.
Print ISBNs9789058086532
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • milk proteins
  • casein hydrolysate
  • whey protein
  • protein hydrolysates
  • peptides
  • multivariate analysis
  • reverse phase liquid chromatography
  • gel filtration chromatography
  • infrared spectroscopy
  • molecular weight
  • emulsions
  • foams
  • solubility
  • bitterness


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