Bioavailability pathways underlying zinc-induced avoidance behavior and reproduction toxicity in Lumbricus rubellus earthworms.

W.C. Ma, L.T.C. Bonten

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We investigated possible bioavailability pathways underlying zinc-induced avoidance behavior and sublethal reproduction impairment in Lumbricus rubellus. Clay-loam (pH 7.3) and sandy soil (three pH values of 4.3–6.0) were amended with zinc sulfate at six soil concentrations of total Zn ranging from 0.1 to 36 mmol/kg dw. Estimated and measured concentrations of free and exchangeable Zn ranged 10-4 to 7.1 mmol/l. Avoidance behavior responses were fast and could be directly predicted from the activity of free zinc ions without a modifying pH effect. The repellent effect is thus likely mediated by a direct action of Zn2+ ions on epidermal chemosensitive receptors. Body zinc uptake, however, was determined by proton competition with free Zn2+ sorption. Excess accumulation of body Zn was a good predictor of reproduction decline, which is indicative of internal zinc poisoning. The results indicated that zinc affects earthworms via both direct and indirect mechanisms of external and internal exposure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1721-1726
JournalEcotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume74
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • metal accumulation
  • organic-matter
  • eisenia-andrei
  • contaminated field
  • heavy-metals
  • soils
  • copper
  • ph
  • speciation
  • calcium

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