Bioactivity screening and mass spectrometric confirmation for the detection of PPAR-delta agonists that increase type 1 muscle fibres

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Abstract

Sensitive and robust bioassays able to detect nuclear receptor activation are very useful for veterinary and doping control, pharmaceutical industry and environmental scientists. Here, we used bioassays based on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines to detect the ligand-induced activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd). Exposure of U937 cells to the PPARd agonist GW501516 resulted in a marked increase in mRNA expression of the PPARd target gene Angptl4 which was quantified by qRTPCR analysis. Exposure ofHepG2 cells transiently transfected with a PPARd expression plasmid and a PPAR-response element-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PPARd agonists GW501516, GW610742 and L-165041 resulted in clear dose–response curves. Although the qRT-PCR resulted in higher fold inductions, the luciferase assay with transfected HepG2 cells is cheaper and quicker and about ten times more sensitive to GW501516 compared to analysis of Angptl4 mRNA expression in U937 cells by qRT-PCR. The HepG2- based luciferase assay was therefore used to screen GW501516-spiked supplements and feed and water samples. After liquid extraction and clean-up by solid phase extraction using a weak anion exchange column, extracts were screened in the HepG2 bioassay followed by confirmation with a newly developed UPLC-MS/MS method, using two transitions for each compound, i.e., for GW501516, 454.07>188.15 (collision energy (CE) 46 V) and 454.07>257.08 (CE 30 V); for GW610742, 472.07>206.2 (CE 48 V) and 472.07>275.08 (CE 30 V); and for L-165041, 401.2>193.15 (CE 26 V) and 401.2>343.2 (CE 20 V).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-713
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Volume406
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

PPAR delta
Slow-Twitch Muscle Fibers
4-(3-(2-propyl-3-hydroxy-4-acetyl)phenoxy)propyloxyphenoxy acetic acid
Mass Screening
Bioassay
Bioactivity
Luciferases
Biological Assay
Muscle
U937 Cells
Screening
Fibers
Assays
Plasmids
Chemical activation
Veterinary Drugs
Polymerase Chain Reaction
delta Opioid Receptor
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
Drug Industry

Keywords

  • human skeletal-muscle
  • gamma
  • macrophages
  • expression
  • receptors
  • cells
  • acid
  • gene
  • fat

Cite this

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title = "Bioactivity screening and mass spectrometric confirmation for the detection of PPAR-delta agonists that increase type 1 muscle fibres",
abstract = "Sensitive and robust bioassays able to detect nuclear receptor activation are very useful for veterinary and doping control, pharmaceutical industry and environmental scientists. Here, we used bioassays based on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines to detect the ligand-induced activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd). Exposure of U937 cells to the PPARd agonist GW501516 resulted in a marked increase in mRNA expression of the PPARd target gene Angptl4 which was quantified by qRTPCR analysis. Exposure ofHepG2 cells transiently transfected with a PPARd expression plasmid and a PPAR-response element-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PPARd agonists GW501516, GW610742 and L-165041 resulted in clear dose–response curves. Although the qRT-PCR resulted in higher fold inductions, the luciferase assay with transfected HepG2 cells is cheaper and quicker and about ten times more sensitive to GW501516 compared to analysis of Angptl4 mRNA expression in U937 cells by qRT-PCR. The HepG2- based luciferase assay was therefore used to screen GW501516-spiked supplements and feed and water samples. After liquid extraction and clean-up by solid phase extraction using a weak anion exchange column, extracts were screened in the HepG2 bioassay followed by confirmation with a newly developed UPLC-MS/MS method, using two transitions for each compound, i.e., for GW501516, 454.07>188.15 (collision energy (CE) 46 V) and 454.07>257.08 (CE 30 V); for GW610742, 472.07>206.2 (CE 48 V) and 472.07>275.08 (CE 30 V); and for L-165041, 401.2>193.15 (CE 26 V) and 401.2>343.2 (CE 20 V).",
keywords = "human skeletal-muscle, gamma, macrophages, expression, receptors, cells, acid, gene, fat",
author = "T.F.H. Bovee and M.H. Blokland and A.H. Kersten and A.R.M. Hamers and H.H. Heskamp and M.L. Essers and M.W.F. Nielen and {van Ginkel}, L.A.",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1007/s00216-013-7520-y",
language = "English",
volume = "406",
pages = "705--713",
journal = "Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry",
issn = "1618-2642",
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T1 - Bioactivity screening and mass spectrometric confirmation for the detection of PPAR-delta agonists that increase type 1 muscle fibres

AU - Bovee, T.F.H.

AU - Blokland, M.H.

AU - Kersten, A.H.

AU - Hamers, A.R.M.

AU - Heskamp, H.H.

AU - Essers, M.L.

AU - Nielen, M.W.F.

AU - van Ginkel, L.A.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Sensitive and robust bioassays able to detect nuclear receptor activation are very useful for veterinary and doping control, pharmaceutical industry and environmental scientists. Here, we used bioassays based on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines to detect the ligand-induced activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd). Exposure of U937 cells to the PPARd agonist GW501516 resulted in a marked increase in mRNA expression of the PPARd target gene Angptl4 which was quantified by qRTPCR analysis. Exposure ofHepG2 cells transiently transfected with a PPARd expression plasmid and a PPAR-response element-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PPARd agonists GW501516, GW610742 and L-165041 resulted in clear dose–response curves. Although the qRT-PCR resulted in higher fold inductions, the luciferase assay with transfected HepG2 cells is cheaper and quicker and about ten times more sensitive to GW501516 compared to analysis of Angptl4 mRNA expression in U937 cells by qRT-PCR. The HepG2- based luciferase assay was therefore used to screen GW501516-spiked supplements and feed and water samples. After liquid extraction and clean-up by solid phase extraction using a weak anion exchange column, extracts were screened in the HepG2 bioassay followed by confirmation with a newly developed UPLC-MS/MS method, using two transitions for each compound, i.e., for GW501516, 454.07>188.15 (collision energy (CE) 46 V) and 454.07>257.08 (CE 30 V); for GW610742, 472.07>206.2 (CE 48 V) and 472.07>275.08 (CE 30 V); and for L-165041, 401.2>193.15 (CE 26 V) and 401.2>343.2 (CE 20 V).

AB - Sensitive and robust bioassays able to detect nuclear receptor activation are very useful for veterinary and doping control, pharmaceutical industry and environmental scientists. Here, we used bioassays based on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma U937 and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell lines to detect the ligand-induced activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd). Exposure of U937 cells to the PPARd agonist GW501516 resulted in a marked increase in mRNA expression of the PPARd target gene Angptl4 which was quantified by qRTPCR analysis. Exposure ofHepG2 cells transiently transfected with a PPARd expression plasmid and a PPAR-response element-driven luciferase reporter plasmid to PPARd agonists GW501516, GW610742 and L-165041 resulted in clear dose–response curves. Although the qRT-PCR resulted in higher fold inductions, the luciferase assay with transfected HepG2 cells is cheaper and quicker and about ten times more sensitive to GW501516 compared to analysis of Angptl4 mRNA expression in U937 cells by qRT-PCR. The HepG2- based luciferase assay was therefore used to screen GW501516-spiked supplements and feed and water samples. After liquid extraction and clean-up by solid phase extraction using a weak anion exchange column, extracts were screened in the HepG2 bioassay followed by confirmation with a newly developed UPLC-MS/MS method, using two transitions for each compound, i.e., for GW501516, 454.07>188.15 (collision energy (CE) 46 V) and 454.07>257.08 (CE 30 V); for GW610742, 472.07>206.2 (CE 48 V) and 472.07>275.08 (CE 30 V); and for L-165041, 401.2>193.15 (CE 26 V) and 401.2>343.2 (CE 20 V).

KW - human skeletal-muscle

KW - gamma

KW - macrophages

KW - expression

KW - receptors

KW - cells

KW - acid

KW - gene

KW - fat

U2 - 10.1007/s00216-013-7520-y

DO - 10.1007/s00216-013-7520-y

M3 - Article

VL - 406

SP - 705

EP - 713

JO - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

JF - Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

SN - 1618-2642

ER -