Availability of protein-derived amino acids as feedstock for the production of bio-based chemicals

T.M. Lammens, M.C.R. Franssen, E.L. Scott, J.P.M. Sanders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

107 Citations (Scopus)


This review describes different potential sources for amino acids that could be used for the production of bulk chemicals in a biorefinery, such as agricultural byproduct streams. Volumes at which these sources and the amino acids therein are available were determined, and the most interesting amino acids in terms of their potential available quantity were identified. The investigated sources are maize and wheat DDGS, sugarcane vinasse and its leaves, sugar beet vinasse and its leaves, cassava leaves, press cakes of rapeseed, sunflower, soybean, palm oil and Jatropha, animal slaughter waste, microalgae, macroalgae, grass and alfalfa. It can be concluded that there are enough sources available to produce bio-based chemicals such as N-methylpyrrolidone with a market sizes around 100 kt per year from amino acids. Bulk chemicals such as acrylonitrile can partly be replaced in the future by their bio-based equivalent, depending on the amounts of biofuels that will be produced in the future. However, it is still necessary to find cost-effective methods for the isolation of amino acids from the discussed sources
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)168-181
JournalBiomass and Bioenergy
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • distillers dried grains
  • condensed molasses solubles
  • jatropha-curcas l.
  • palm kernel meal
  • nutritional-value
  • reactive-extraction
  • antinutritional factors
  • nitrogen-degradability
  • growth-performance
  • ethanol-production


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