Autotrophic nitrogen removal from low strength waste water at low temperature

T.L.G. Hendrickx, Y. Wang, C. Kampman, G. Zeeman, B.G. Temmink, C.J.N. Buisman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

161 Citations (Scopus)


Direct anaerobic treatment of municipal waste waters allows for energy recovery in the form of biogas. A further decrease in the energy requirement for waste water treatment can be achieved by removing the ammonium in the anaerobic effluent with an autotrophic process, such as anammox. Until now, anammox has mainly been used for treating warm (>30 °C) and concentrated (>500 mg N/L) waste streams. Application in the water line of municipal waste water treatment poses the challenges of a lower nitrogen concentration (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2187-2193
JournalWater Research
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • waste water treatment
  • waste water treatment plants
  • nitrogen
  • removal
  • denitrification
  • temperature
  • anaerobic treatment
  • ammonium
  • oxidation
  • energy saving
  • municipal wastewater
  • anaerobic ammonium oxidation
  • treat sewage
  • reactor
  • system

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