In the sulphate-reducing process, bioprocess control can be used to regulate the competition between microbial groups, to optimize the input of the electron donor and/or to maximize or minimize the production of sulphide. As shown in this review, modelling and monitoring are important tools in the development and application of a bioprocess control strategy. Pre-eminent literature on modelling, monitoring and control of sulphate-reducing processes is reviewed. This paper firstly reviews existing mathematical models for sulphate reduction, focusing on models for biofilms, microbial competition, inhibition and bioreactor dynamics. Secondly, a summary of process monitoring strategies is presented. Special attention is given to in situ sensors for sulphate, sulphide and electron donor concentrations as well as for biomass activity and composition. Finally, the state of the art of the bioprocess control strategies in biological sulphate reduction processes is overviewed.