Assortment, Hamilton's rule and multilevel selection

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Explaining the evolution of cooperation has been under debate for a long time (reviewed in Frank 1998; Lehmann & Keller 2006). Cooperative traits impose a cost on the individual exhibiting the trait to the benefit of other individuals. Prevailing explanations focus on interactions among genetically related individuals (kin selection; Hamilton 1964) and on selection acting at multiple levels of biological organization (multilevel or group selection; Wilson 1975), and both approaches have been shown to be mathematically equivalent (Queller 1992; Bijma & Wade 2008)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-675
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1682
Publication statusPublished - 2010


  • evolution
  • altruism
  • genetics
  • models

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