Assessment of the Intestinal Absorption of Higher Olefins by the Everted Gut Sac Model in Combination with in Silico New Approach Methodologies

Quan Shi*, Juan Carlos Carrillo, Michael G. Penman, Jason Manton, Elena Fioravanzo, Robert H. Powrie, Clifford R. Elcombe, Tilly Borsboom-Patel, Yuan Tian, Hua Shen, Peter J. Boogaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


To reduce the number of animals and studies needed to fulfill the information requirements as required by Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) (EC no. 1907/2006), a read-across approach was used to support approximately 30 higher olefins. This study aimed to assess the absorption potential of higher olefins through the gut wall as the experimentally determined bioavailability which would strengthen the read-across hypothesis and justification, reducing the need for toxicity studies on all of the higher olefins. The absorption potential of a series of higher olefins (carbon range from 6 to 28, with five configurations of the double bond) was determined in the in vitro everted rat small intestinal sac model and subsequently ranked. In addition, in silico approaches were applied to predict the reactivity, lipophilicity, and permeability of higher olefins. In the in vitro model, everted sacs were incubated in "fed-state simulated small intestinal fluid"saturated with individual higher olefins. The sac contents were then collected, extracted, and analyzed for olefin content using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The C6 to C10 molecules were readily absorbed into the intestinal sacs. Marked inter-compound differences were observed, with the amount of absorption generally decreasing with the increase in carbon number. Higher olefins with ≥C14 carbons were either not absorbed or very poorly absorbed. In the reactivity simulation study, the reactivity is well described by the position of the double bond rather than the number of carbon atoms. In the lipophilicity and permeability analysis, both parameter descriptors depend mainly on the number of carbon atoms and less on the position of the double bond. In conclusion, these new approach methodologies provide supporting information on any trends or breakpoints in intestinal uptake and a hazard matrix based on carbon number and position of the double bond. This matrix will further assist in the selection of substances for inclusion in the mammalian toxicity testing programme.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1383–1392
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2022


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