Assessment of intergenomic recombination through GISH analysis of F1, BC1 and BC2 progenies of Tulipa gesneriana and T. fosteriana

A.R. Marasek Ciolakowska, H. He, P.J.J. Bijman, M.S. Ramanna, P. Arens, J.M. van Tuyl

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Using 23 F1 hybrids, 14 BC1 and 32 BC2 progenies, the genome composition of Darwin hybrid tulips was analysed through genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) of somatic chromosomes. All plants were diploids (2n = 2x = 24) with the exception of one tetraploid BC1 (2n = 4x = 48) and one aneuploid BC2 (2n = 2x + 1 = 25) hybrid. Morphometric analysis in F1 hybrids revealed a difference in the total length of chromosomes representing genomes of T. gesneriana and T. fosteriana, where the percentage of each genome equaled 55.18 ± 0.8 and 44.92 ± 0.6% respectively. GISH distinguished chromosomes from both parent genomes although there was a lack of consistent chromosome labelling in some cases. In both T. gesneriana and T. fosteriana chromosomes some segments of heterochromatin in the telomeric and intercalary regions exhibited a higher intensity of fluorescence. In situ hybridisation with 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA probes to metaphase chromosomes of F1 hybrids showed that these regions are rich in rDNA. A notable feature was that, despite genome differences, there was a considerable amount of intergenomic recombination between the parental chromosomes of the two species as estimated in both BC1 and BC2 offspring. The number of recombinant chromosomes ranged from 3 to 8 in BC1 and from 1 to 7 in BC2 progenies. All recombinant chromosomes possessed mostly a single recombinant segment derived from either a single crossover event or in a few cases double crossover events. This explains the fact that, unlike the situation in most F1 hybrids of other plant species, certain genotypes of Darwin hybrid tulips behave like normal diploid plants producing haploid gametes and give rise to mostly diploid sporophytes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)887-899
JournalPlant Systematics and Evolution
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • in-situ hybridization
  • sexual polyploidization
  • species relationships
  • chromosome variation
  • herbaceous plants
  • lilium hybrids
  • garden tulips
  • clusiana dc
  • cultivars
  • liliaceae

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