Background Applying self-regulation strategies have proven important in eating behaviors, but it remains subject to investigation what strategies adolescents report to use to ensure healthy eating, and adequate measures are lacking. Therefore, we developed and validated a self-regulation questionnaire applied to eating (TESQ-E) for adolescents. Methods Study 1 reports a four-step approach to develop the TESQ-E questionnaire (n¿=¿1097). Study 2 was a cross-sectional survey among adolescents from nine European countries (n¿=¿11,392) that assessed the TESQ-E, eating-related behaviors, dietary intake and background characteristics. In study 3, the TESQ-E was administered twice within four weeks to evaluate test-retest reliability (n¿=¿140). Study 4 was a cross-sectional survey (n¿=¿93) that assessed the TESQ-E and related psychological constructs (e.g., motivation, autonomy, self-control). All participants were aged between 10 and 17 years. Results Study 1 resulted in a 24-item questionnaire assessing adolescent-reported use of six specific strategies for healthy eating that represent three general self-regulation approaches. Study 2 showed that the easy-to-administer theory-based TESQ-E has a clear factor structure and good subscale reliabilities. The questionnaire was related to eating-related behaviors and dietary intake, indicating predictive validity. Study 3 showed good test-retest reliabilities for the TESQ-E. Study 4 indicated that TESQ-E was related to but also distinguishable from general self-regulation and motivation measures. Conclusions The TESQ-E provides a reliable and valid measure to assess six theory-based self-regulation strategies that adolescents may use to ensure their healthy eating.
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|
- implementation intentions
- international survey
- obese children
- family meals