Article 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol consequences for industrialised countries' commitment, the monitoring needs, and possible side effects

G.J. Nabuurs, A.J. Dolman, E. Verkaik, P.J. Kuikman, C.A. van Diepen, A.P. Whitmore, W.P. Daamen, O. Oenema, P. Kabat, G.M.J. Mohren

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Abstract

In the Kyoto Protocol, industrialised countries have agreed to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. To achieve that target, direct human induced activities initiated in the Land-use Change and Forestry sector since 1990, shall be included. However, the wording in the Protocol has caused confusion. The IPCC has been requested to deliver a Special Report on Land-use, Land-use Change and Forestry issues arising from this Protocol. In the present study a limited initial assessment of the implications of alternative interpretations of Afforestation, Reforestation and Deforestation (ARD), addition of the soils compartment, the selection of additional activities, and feasibility of monitoring was done for a limited number of countries. The results show that it is possible to keep the biosphere articles in the Protocol even though we had to make several assumptions concerning for example, areas of application and effectiveness of additional activities. The consequences of alternative interpretations for ARD have a large impact on the countries' assigned amount; varying from a compensation of 26 f total national emissions (Forestry interpretation for Sweden) to an addition of an extra 13 f the emissions (Global interpretation for Australia). Through selection of a large set of additional activities, most of the studied industrialised countries achieve more sequestration than the reduction of emissions they have committed themselves to. Methods for monitoring are available, but there is no one ideal method. Depending on scale and site: a combination of forest inventory with flux measurements and remote sensing is proposed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-134
JournalEnvironmental Science & Policy
Volume3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2000

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Kyoto Protocol
forestry
commitment
monitoring
interpretation
land use
reforestation
afforestation
deforestation
land use change
biosphere
forest inventory
flux measurement
Sweden
carbon dioxide
remote sensing
need
side effect
protocol
soil

Cite this

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abstract = "In the Kyoto Protocol, industrialised countries have agreed to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. To achieve that target, direct human induced activities initiated in the Land-use Change and Forestry sector since 1990, shall be included. However, the wording in the Protocol has caused confusion. The IPCC has been requested to deliver a Special Report on Land-use, Land-use Change and Forestry issues arising from this Protocol. In the present study a limited initial assessment of the implications of alternative interpretations of Afforestation, Reforestation and Deforestation (ARD), addition of the soils compartment, the selection of additional activities, and feasibility of monitoring was done for a limited number of countries. The results show that it is possible to keep the biosphere articles in the Protocol even though we had to make several assumptions concerning for example, areas of application and effectiveness of additional activities. The consequences of alternative interpretations for ARD have a large impact on the countries' assigned amount; varying from a compensation of 26 f total national emissions (Forestry interpretation for Sweden) to an addition of an extra 13 f the emissions (Global interpretation for Australia). Through selection of a large set of additional activities, most of the studied industrialised countries achieve more sequestration than the reduction of emissions they have committed themselves to. Methods for monitoring are available, but there is no one ideal method. Depending on scale and site: a combination of forest inventory with flux measurements and remote sensing is proposed.",
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Article 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol consequences for industrialised countries' commitment, the monitoring needs, and possible side effects. / Nabuurs, G.J.; Dolman, A.J.; Verkaik, E.; Kuikman, P.J.; van Diepen, C.A.; Whitmore, A.P.; Daamen, W.P.; Oenema, O.; Kabat, P.; Mohren, G.M.J.

In: Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 3, 2000, p. 123-134.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Nabuurs, G.J.

AU - Dolman, A.J.

AU - Verkaik, E.

AU - Kuikman, P.J.

AU - van Diepen, C.A.

AU - Whitmore, A.P.

AU - Daamen, W.P.

AU - Oenema, O.

AU - Kabat, P.

AU - Mohren, G.M.J.

PY - 2000

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N2 - In the Kyoto Protocol, industrialised countries have agreed to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. To achieve that target, direct human induced activities initiated in the Land-use Change and Forestry sector since 1990, shall be included. However, the wording in the Protocol has caused confusion. The IPCC has been requested to deliver a Special Report on Land-use, Land-use Change and Forestry issues arising from this Protocol. In the present study a limited initial assessment of the implications of alternative interpretations of Afforestation, Reforestation and Deforestation (ARD), addition of the soils compartment, the selection of additional activities, and feasibility of monitoring was done for a limited number of countries. The results show that it is possible to keep the biosphere articles in the Protocol even though we had to make several assumptions concerning for example, areas of application and effectiveness of additional activities. The consequences of alternative interpretations for ARD have a large impact on the countries' assigned amount; varying from a compensation of 26 f total national emissions (Forestry interpretation for Sweden) to an addition of an extra 13 f the emissions (Global interpretation for Australia). Through selection of a large set of additional activities, most of the studied industrialised countries achieve more sequestration than the reduction of emissions they have committed themselves to. Methods for monitoring are available, but there is no one ideal method. Depending on scale and site: a combination of forest inventory with flux measurements and remote sensing is proposed.

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