Arsenic (As) contamination is a well-recognized environmental and health issue, threatening over 200 million people worldwide with the prime cases in South and Southeast Asian and Latin American countries. Rice is mostly cultivated under flooded paddy soil conditions, where As speciation and accumulation by rice plants is controlled by various geo-environmental (biotic and abiotic) factors. In contrast to other food crops, As uptake in rice has been found to be substantially higher due to the prevalence of highly mobile and toxic As species, arsenite (As(III)), under paddy soil conditions. In this review, we discussed the biogeochemical cycling of As in paddy soil-rice system, described the influence of critical factors such as pH, iron oxides, organic matter, microbial species, and pathways affecting As transformation and accumulation by rice. Moreover, we elucidated As interaction with organic and inorganic amendments and mineral nutrients. The review also elaborates on As (im)mobilization processes and As uptake by rice under the influence of different mineral nutrients and amendments in paddy soil conditions, as well as their role in mitigating As transfer to rice grain. This review article provides critical information on As contamination in paddy soil-rice system, which is important to develop suitable strategies and mitigation programs for limiting As exposure via rice crop, and meet the UN's key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs: 2 (zero hunger), 3 (good health and well-being), 12 (responsible consumption and production), and 13 (climate action)).
- Food security
- Health risk
- Oxidation and reduction
- Soil amendments
- UN sustainable development goals