The nitrogen-fixing rhizobia in the symbiotic infected cells of root nodules are kept in membrane compartments derived from the host cell plasma membrane, forming what are known as symbiosomes. These are maintained as individual units, with mature symbiosomes having a specific radial position in the host cell cytoplasm. The mechanisms that adapt the host cell architecture to accommodate intracellular bacteria are not clear. The intracellular organization of any cell depends heavily on the actin cytoskeleton. Dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for cytoplasm organization and intracellular trafficking of vesicles and organelles. A key component of the actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is the ARP2/3 complex, which nucleates new actin filaments and forms branched actin networks. To clarify the role of the ARP2/3 complex in the development of infected cells and symbiosomes, we analyzed the pattern of actin microfilaments and the functional role of ARP3 in Medicago truncatula root nodules. In infected cells, ARP3 protein and actin were spatially associated with maturing symbiosomes. Partial ARP3 silencing causes defects in symbiosome development; in particular, ARP3 silencing disrupts the final differentiation steps in functional maturation into nitrogen-fixing units.