Aroma exposure time and aroma concentration in relation to satiation

M.G. Ramaekers, P.A. Luning, R.M.A.J. Ruijschop, C.M.M. Lakemond, J.H.F. Bult, G. Gort, M.A.J.S. van Boekel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


The present study investigated the effect of aroma exposure time and aroma concentration on ad libitum intake and subjective satiation. In a within-subject study, thirty-eight unrestrained, healthy female participants (age: 18-39 years; BMI: 18·5-26·0 kg/m2) were asked to consume tomato soup during lunchtime, until they felt comfortably full. Every 30 s, the participants consumed 10 g of a bland soup base while tomato soup aroma was delivered separately through the nose via a retronasal tube that was attached to an olfactometer. This gave the impression of consuming real tomato soup. For each sip, the aroma varied in exposure time (3 and 18 s) and concentration (5 × ), resulting in four different test conditions. Ad libitum food intake and appetite profile parameters were measured. A 9 % lower food intake was observed when the participants were exposed to the condition with 18 s exposure time and a high concentration than when exposed to the other three conditions. These results indicate that changing the retronasal aroma release by aroma concentration and aroma exposure time affects food intake
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)554-562
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Issue number03
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • sensory-specific satiety
  • food-intake
  • repeated consumption
  • flavor retention
  • release
  • size
  • orthonasal
  • perception
  • behavior
  • taste

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