Applying federated learning to combat food fraud in food supply chains

Anand Gavai, Yamine Bouzembrak*, Wenjuan Mu, Frank Martin, Rajaram Kaliyaperumal, Johan van Soest, Ananya Choudhury, Jaap Heringa, Andre Dekker, Hans J.P. Marvin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Ensuring safe and healthy food is a big challenge due to the complexity of food supply chains and their vulnerability to many internal and external factors, including food fraud. Recent research has shown that Artificial Intelligence (AI) based algorithms, in particularly data driven Bayesian Network (BN) models, are very suitable as a tool to predict future food fraud and hence allowing food producers to take proper actions to avoid that such problems occur. Such models become even more powerful when data can be used from all actors in the supply chain, but data sharing is hampered by different interests, data security and data privacy. Federated learning (FL) may circumvent these issues as demonstrated in various areas of the life sciences. In this research, we demonstrate the potential of the FL technology for food fraud using a data driven BN, integrating data from different data owners without the data leaving the database of the data owners. To this end, a framework was constructed consisting of three geographically different data stations hosting different datasets on food fraud. Using this framework, a BN algorithm was implemented that was trained on the data of different data stations while the data remained at its physical location abiding by privacy principles. We demonstrated the applicability of the federated BN in food fraud and anticipate that such framework may support stakeholders in the food supply chain for better decision-making regarding food fraud control while still preserving the privacy and confidentiality nature of these data.

Original languageEnglish
Article number46
Journalnpj Science of Food
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


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