Apoplastic Venom Allergen-like Proteins of Cyst Nematodes Modulate the Activation of Basal Plant Innate Immunity by Cell Surface Receptors

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractAcademic

Abstract

Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. We have recently discovered that venom allergen-like proteins (VAPs) of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. VAPs are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and VAPs from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic VAPs involves extracellular protease-based host defenses. Furthermore, the onset of programmed cell death was commonly suppressed by VAPs from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these VAPs only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of VAPs into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize VAPs to suppress the activation of defenses by immunogenic breakdown products in damaged host tissue.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventPlant Receptor Kinases: From Molecules to Environment, Taos, New Mexico -
Duration: 8 Feb 201513 Feb 2015

Conference

ConferencePlant Receptor Kinases: From Molecules to Environment, Taos, New Mexico
Period8/02/1513/02/15

Fingerprint

cyst nematodes
venoms
allergens
receptors
proteins
plant parasitic nematodes
cells
Nematoda
Heterodera schachtii
Globodera rostochiensis
immunity
secretion
parasitism
apoptosis
animal parasitic nematodes
innate immunity
Meloidogyne incognita
root-knot nematodes
beets
mechanism of action

Cite this

@conference{422675754394465ab312faf38115e23a,
title = "Apoplastic Venom Allergen-like Proteins of Cyst Nematodes Modulate the Activation of Basal Plant Innate Immunity by Cell Surface Receptors",
abstract = "Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. We have recently discovered that venom allergen-like proteins (VAPs) of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. VAPs are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and VAPs from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic VAPs involves extracellular protease-based host defenses. Furthermore, the onset of programmed cell death was commonly suppressed by VAPs from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these VAPs only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of VAPs into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize VAPs to suppress the activation of defenses by immunogenic breakdown products in damaged host tissue.",
author = "{Lozano Torres}, J.L. and R.H.P. Wilbers and S. Warmerdam and A.M. Finkers-Tomczak and {Diaz Granados Mu{\~n}oz}, A. and {van Schaik}, C.C. and J. Helder and J. Bakker and A. Goverse and A. Schots and G. Smant",
year = "2015",
language = "English",
note = "Plant Receptor Kinases: From Molecules to Environment, Taos, New Mexico ; Conference date: 08-02-2015 Through 13-02-2015",

}

Apoplastic Venom Allergen-like Proteins of Cyst Nematodes Modulate the Activation of Basal Plant Innate Immunity by Cell Surface Receptors. / Lozano Torres, J.L.; Wilbers, R.H.P.; Warmerdam, S.; Finkers-Tomczak, A.M.; Diaz Granados Muñoz, A.; van Schaik, C.C.; Helder, J.; Bakker, J.; Goverse, A.; Schots, A.; Smant, G.

2015. Abstract from Plant Receptor Kinases: From Molecules to Environment, Taos, New Mexico, .

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractAcademic

TY - CONF

T1 - Apoplastic Venom Allergen-like Proteins of Cyst Nematodes Modulate the Activation of Basal Plant Innate Immunity by Cell Surface Receptors

AU - Lozano Torres, J.L.

AU - Wilbers, R.H.P.

AU - Warmerdam, S.

AU - Finkers-Tomczak, A.M.

AU - Diaz Granados Muñoz, A.

AU - van Schaik, C.C.

AU - Helder, J.

AU - Bakker, J.

AU - Goverse, A.

AU - Schots, A.

AU - Smant, G.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. We have recently discovered that venom allergen-like proteins (VAPs) of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. VAPs are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and VAPs from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic VAPs involves extracellular protease-based host defenses. Furthermore, the onset of programmed cell death was commonly suppressed by VAPs from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these VAPs only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of VAPs into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize VAPs to suppress the activation of defenses by immunogenic breakdown products in damaged host tissue.

AB - Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue during the onset of parasitism, nematodes establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. It is thought that an elaborate repertoire of effector proteins in nematode secretions suppresses damage-triggered immune responses of the host. However, the nature and mode of action of most immunomodulatory compounds in nematode secretions are not well understood. We have recently discovered that venom allergen-like proteins (VAPs) of plant-parasitic nematodes selectively suppress host immunity mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. VAPs are uniquely conserved in secretions of all animal- and plant-parasitic nematodes studied to date, but their role during the onset of parasitism has thus far remained elusive. Knocking-down the expression of Gr-VAP1 severely hampered the infectivity of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. By contrast, heterologous expression of Gr-VAP1 and VAPs from the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii in plants resulted in the loss of basal immunity to multiple pathogens. The modulation of basal immunity by ectopic VAPs involves extracellular protease-based host defenses. Furthermore, the onset of programmed cell death was commonly suppressed by VAPs from G. rostochiensis, H. schachtii, and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Surprisingly, these VAPs only affected the programmed cell death mediated by surface-localized immune receptors. Furthermore, the delivery of VAPs into host tissue coincides with the enzymatic breakdown of plant cell walls by migratory nematodes. We, therefore, conclude that parasitic nematodes most likely utilize VAPs to suppress the activation of defenses by immunogenic breakdown products in damaged host tissue.

M3 - Abstract

ER -