ANS Responses and Facial Expressions Differentiate between the Taste of Commercial Breakfast Drinks

R.A. de Wijk, W. He, M.G.J. Mensink, R. Verhoeven, C. de Graaf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


The high failure rate of new market introductions, despite initial successful testing with traditional sensory and consumer tests, necessitates the development of other tests. This study explored the ability of selected physiological and behavioral measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) to distinguish between repeated exposures to foods from a single category (breakfast drinks) and with similar liking ratings. In this within-subject study 19 healthy young adults sipped from five breakfast drinks, each presented five times, while ANS responses (heart rate, skin conductance response and skin temperature), facial expressions, liking, and intensities were recorded. The results showed that liking was associated with increased heart rate and skin temperature, and more neutral facial expressions. Intensity was associated with reduced heart rate and skin temperature, more neutral expressions and more negative expressions of sadness, anger and surprise. Strongest associations with liking were found after 1 second of tasting, whereas strongest associations with intensity were found after 2 seconds of tasting. Future studies should verify the contribution of the additional information to the prediction of market success.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere93823
Number of pages9
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • appraisal
  • emotions
  • odors

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