Adventitious root formation in vitro in 1-mm stem slices cut from microshoots of apple cv. Jork 9 was studied using light and electron microscopy. When indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) had been added to the medium, starch grains accumulated during the first 24 h of culture in cells of the cambial region and in cells in the vicinity of vascular tissue and in the primary rays. This accumulation occurred only in the basal part of explants. After that, the nuclei in these cells were activated, and the density of the cytoplasm and the number of cell organelles increased, whereas starch was broken down. Cambium cells started to divide transversely and at 96 h, after several divisions, a continuous ring of isodiametric cytoplasmic cells had appeared around the xylem near the basal cutting surface. The cells in this ring were rich in cell structures, and did not contain large starch grains and a central vacuole. Root meristemoids regenerated from the portions of the ring that were localized in the primary rays. From the other cells in the ring, callus developed. The meristemoids did not grow into the direction of the epidermis as in shoots, but along the vascular bundles. After emergence from the cutting surface, the meristemoids were transformed into small, dome-like primordia. They developed a typical root apex with root cap, root ground meristem and tracheid connection with shoot vascular tissue.
- cambial region