Analysis of urban rainfall from hourly to seasonal scales using high-resolution radar observations in the Netherlands

Iris Manola*, Gert Jan Steeneveld, Remko Uijlenhoet, Albert A.M. Holtslag

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In this article an analysis of urban rainfall from hourly to seasonal scales is conducted for the Netherlands, with a focus on its capital, Amsterdam. In addition, the potential of synoptic weather types and local wind directions to categorize extreme rainfall in Amsterdam is assessed. An analysis of gauge-adjusted daily radar rainfall retrievals with 1 km spatial resolution for 10 years shows that rainfall is enhanced over Dutch cities compared to their rural surroundings, with a maximum of a 14.2% increase over the largest cities in winter. The annual cumulative rainfall in Amsterdam appears to be significantly higher compared to its surroundings. This is due both to the higher frequency of occurrence of urban rainfall and to the higher hourly mean intensities. Extreme hourly rainfall rates appear to be affected by urban areas only in summer. Diurnal and weekly rainfall cycles do not reveal any significant urban influence. A wind direction analysis reveals that extreme rainfall events can primarily be attributed to westerly and next to southerly air masses. An analysis of the Jenkinson and Collinson (JC) and the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) weather types with rainfall and extreme rainfall events reveals that the JC weather types are more indicative of situations associated with rainfall extremes, whereas the DWD weather types are more indicative of situations resulting in higher accumulated rainfall amounts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)822-840
JournalInternational Journal of Climatology
Volume40
Issue number2
Early online date22 Jul 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020

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radar
rainfall
weather
analysis
wind direction
westerly
air mass
gauge
spatial resolution
urban area
winter
summer

Keywords

  • extreme rainfall
  • rain radar observations
  • synoptic weather types
  • urban rainfall

Cite this

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title = "Analysis of urban rainfall from hourly to seasonal scales using high-resolution radar observations in the Netherlands",
abstract = "In this article an analysis of urban rainfall from hourly to seasonal scales is conducted for the Netherlands, with a focus on its capital, Amsterdam. In addition, the potential of synoptic weather types and local wind directions to categorize extreme rainfall in Amsterdam is assessed. An analysis of gauge-adjusted daily radar rainfall retrievals with 1 km spatial resolution for 10 years shows that rainfall is enhanced over Dutch cities compared to their rural surroundings, with a maximum of a 14.2{\%} increase over the largest cities in winter. The annual cumulative rainfall in Amsterdam appears to be significantly higher compared to its surroundings. This is due both to the higher frequency of occurrence of urban rainfall and to the higher hourly mean intensities. Extreme hourly rainfall rates appear to be affected by urban areas only in summer. Diurnal and weekly rainfall cycles do not reveal any significant urban influence. A wind direction analysis reveals that extreme rainfall events can primarily be attributed to westerly and next to southerly air masses. An analysis of the Jenkinson and Collinson (JC) and the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) weather types with rainfall and extreme rainfall events reveals that the JC weather types are more indicative of situations associated with rainfall extremes, whereas the DWD weather types are more indicative of situations resulting in higher accumulated rainfall amounts.",
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author = "Iris Manola and Steeneveld, {Gert Jan} and Remko Uijlenhoet and Holtslag, {Albert A.M.}",
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AU - Steeneveld, Gert Jan

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AU - Holtslag, Albert A.M.

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N2 - In this article an analysis of urban rainfall from hourly to seasonal scales is conducted for the Netherlands, with a focus on its capital, Amsterdam. In addition, the potential of synoptic weather types and local wind directions to categorize extreme rainfall in Amsterdam is assessed. An analysis of gauge-adjusted daily radar rainfall retrievals with 1 km spatial resolution for 10 years shows that rainfall is enhanced over Dutch cities compared to their rural surroundings, with a maximum of a 14.2% increase over the largest cities in winter. The annual cumulative rainfall in Amsterdam appears to be significantly higher compared to its surroundings. This is due both to the higher frequency of occurrence of urban rainfall and to the higher hourly mean intensities. Extreme hourly rainfall rates appear to be affected by urban areas only in summer. Diurnal and weekly rainfall cycles do not reveal any significant urban influence. A wind direction analysis reveals that extreme rainfall events can primarily be attributed to westerly and next to southerly air masses. An analysis of the Jenkinson and Collinson (JC) and the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) weather types with rainfall and extreme rainfall events reveals that the JC weather types are more indicative of situations associated with rainfall extremes, whereas the DWD weather types are more indicative of situations resulting in higher accumulated rainfall amounts.

AB - In this article an analysis of urban rainfall from hourly to seasonal scales is conducted for the Netherlands, with a focus on its capital, Amsterdam. In addition, the potential of synoptic weather types and local wind directions to categorize extreme rainfall in Amsterdam is assessed. An analysis of gauge-adjusted daily radar rainfall retrievals with 1 km spatial resolution for 10 years shows that rainfall is enhanced over Dutch cities compared to their rural surroundings, with a maximum of a 14.2% increase over the largest cities in winter. The annual cumulative rainfall in Amsterdam appears to be significantly higher compared to its surroundings. This is due both to the higher frequency of occurrence of urban rainfall and to the higher hourly mean intensities. Extreme hourly rainfall rates appear to be affected by urban areas only in summer. Diurnal and weekly rainfall cycles do not reveal any significant urban influence. A wind direction analysis reveals that extreme rainfall events can primarily be attributed to westerly and next to southerly air masses. An analysis of the Jenkinson and Collinson (JC) and the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst, DWD) weather types with rainfall and extreme rainfall events reveals that the JC weather types are more indicative of situations associated with rainfall extremes, whereas the DWD weather types are more indicative of situations resulting in higher accumulated rainfall amounts.

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KW - synoptic weather types

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