Analysis of the mango value chain in Bangladesh: Towards a strategic action agenda for the Dhaka city corporations

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In terms of production volume, mango is the most important fruit of Bangladesh with an annual production of 1,165,804 metric ton in 2018. In 2011 the food loss and waste (FLW) worldwide was estimated to be one-third of what is produced for human consumption with most losses taking place for the perishable fruits and vegetables food categories. FLW studies about mangoes produced in Bangladesh are scarce. An opportunity for the mango supply chain in Bangladesh is to work towards reducing food losses at various links of the chain in order to increase the amount of food that reaches consumers. This mango value chain analysis of Bangladesh is performed as a first step with the aim to develop a strategic action agenda on the mango supply chain for the four city corporations in Dhaka focusing on identifying the leverage points for reducing food losses for mangoes in order to improve the performance of the mango value chain and thereby to increase the amount of mangoes that reach consumers and enhance food availability. This value chain analysis focusses on the (post-)harvest supply chain till and including retail and processing. The mango value chain analysis, focusing on Dhaka, is drafted based upon data and information gathered in two literature studies and extensive interviews conducted with individual actors in the supply chain. The interviewees included agricultural producers, intermediaries and truck drivers in Rajshahi, Chapai Nawabganj, Natore, Dinajpur and Kushtia districts, and wholesalers, retailers, mobile vendors and institutional users located in Dhaka North, Dhaka South, Narayanganj and Gazipur city corporation area. Part of the produced mangoes do not go to the intended market, since they cannot be sold in time or do not meet the right quality. These products are sold at the local market or to mango processers, used for home consumption, given to employees or to charity, used for animal feed, mixed with the soil or go to landfill. Harvesting losses occurred, since it was not possible to harvest all mangoes due to the size of the trees, mangoes were perished or damaged due to the harvesting activity, or mangoes were infected or diseased. Furthermore mango quality is low due to inadequate use of inputs such as fertilizers and pesticide, or since they harvested too late. The amount of unsold mangoes at agricultural producers are estimated at 1.8% of the total production volume. Wholesalers and intermediaries handled the largest amounts of mangoes, while having a relatively small percentage that remained unsold compared to the actors later in the supply chain; 2.9% and 3.5% of the input volume respectively. Most unsold mangoes were found at the end of the supply chain at the retailers (3.7% of the input volume), mobile vendors (5.7% of the input volume) and institutional users (5.1% of the input volume). Part of the unsold mangoes are still consumed at home or given away and therefore still used for human consumption. The real amount of food losses are therefore lower than the amount of unsold mangoes. Mango quality will diminish in time when not stored properly. Fruits that have a low quality at the moment of harvest will perish faster, since small bruises will increase or express itself later in time, and therefore later in the supply chain. Other challenges in the supply chain can be found in the enabling environment. Transportation faces the hampering effects of high transport costs, bad road communication, and bribes and extortion. Furthermore, mango is a seasonal product and domestic mango is available during the summer only, and cannot be stored longer than 4-8 weeks. Mango is a very sensitive fruit and significant investments to reduce losses and maintain harvest quality is not justified by the current price. Although mango is the king of fruits in Bangladesh, as it is the number one fruit produced in Bangladesh and Bangladesh is the 10th mango agricultural producer in the world, the domestic demand for mangoes is low and as a consequence the price is too. Opportunities and recommendations to enhance the performance of the mango supply chain in Bangladesh are related to creating incentives to invest and improve the quality of mangoes produced, supporting cooperative formation, improving information, communication and transportation systems, starting to brand and stimulate eating more healthy and safe fruits in Bangladesh, and exploring ways to support export.
Original languageDutch
Place of PublicationWageningen
PublisherWageningen Food & Biobased Research
Number of pages39
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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NameReport / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research

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