Analysis of Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreaks in Four District Areas in Thailand

Thanicha Chanchaidechachai, Helmut Saatkamp, Chaidate Inchaisri*, Henk Hogeveen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most important infectious animal diseases impacting livestock production in Thailand. Despite a national vaccination program, FMD outbreaks are reported every year. We studied the epidemiological impacts of FMD outbreaks in four districts of Thailand between 2015 and 2016. Epidemiological data were collected from 193 FMD-affected dairy farms, 55 FMD-affected beef farms, and 25 FMD-affected pig farms. A significant difference in morbidity rates were observed between the dairy farms in the different areas, which could be explained by the differences in FMD outbreak management in each area. The morbidity rates in dairy and beef cattle also significantly differed between each animal age category, with the lowest morbidity rate observed in calves. Remarkably, vaccination was not significantly associated with the morbidity rate. In addition, the economic impact of FMD was calculated for 60 dairy farms in Muak Lek district. The economic losses were determined as the sum of milk production loss, mortality loss, additional labor costs, and veterinary service and medical costs, which averaged 56 USD per animal on the farm (ranging from 2 to 377 USD). Milk loss had the largest economic impact, although it varied substantially between farms. The farm size and outbreak duration were significantly associated with the total economic losses per farm. These results affirm the substantial epidemiological and economic impact of FMD on farms in Thailand, emphasizing the importance of FMD control.

Original languageEnglish
Article number904630
JournalFrontiers in Veterinary Science
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jun 2022


  • economic
  • epidemiology
  • farm losses
  • foot-and-mouth disease
  • morbidity
  • mortality


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