Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

D.H. Liem

    Research output: Thesisexternal PhD, WU


    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several of these lists, but no analytical methods were given to control these lists. Therefore a study has been started with the aim to make analytical market surveys of several classes of potentially risk-bearing compounds. The analytical experience gained in the study can be used for the developments of official methods for the Dutch Cosmetic Act. The results of these market surveys can moreover be used as information on the actual use of risk-bearing compounds and will therefore contribute to the establishment of sound and significant cosmetic legislation in the Netherlands.<br/>Eye make-up colours were identified by a set of characteristic reactions. Lipstick colours were identified by wellknown chromategraphic methods. Colour intermediates for the oxidative hair colouring were identified by two-dimensional thin- layer chromatography. The aromatic amines were confirmed by direct gaschromatographic analysis which permitted quantitative determination. A separation of phenolic intermediates by means of gaschromatography is also described. Suntan preparations were analysed for the presence of UV-absorbers, browning agents and local anesthesics. A simple aerosol sampling method, prior to gaschromatographic analysis was developed, thus permitting a total analysis of propellants and solvents in single-phase aerosols within an hour. Hormonal substances were detected in selected samples by chromatographic methods. These chemical findings supported the results of the biological assay for the detection of oestrogenic and androgenic activity of cosmetic products. Finally antimicrobial compounds were analysed in many kinds of cosmetic products, in which they were used for preservation or for its deodorizing, antidandruff or antiseptic actions. The diversity in chemical structure did not allow the development of universal methods, but most of the compounds could be identified and determined by chromatographic methods. Formaldehyde was determined by fluorometry. A study of the stability of formaldehyde releasing substances is presented.<p/>
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
    Awarding Institution
    • Pilnik, W., Promotor, External person
    Award date10 Dec 1976
    Place of PublicationWageningen
    Publication statusPublished - 1976


    • clothing
    • cosmetics
    • essential oils
    • inspection
    • perfumery
    • toxic substances
    • toys
    • xenobiotics


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