Analyses of pig genomes provide insight to porcine demography and evolution

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

676 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

For 10,000¿years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.
LanguageEnglish
Pages393-398
JournalNature
Volume491
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Fingerprint

demography
swine
genome
smell
olfactory receptors
genes
Duroc
Sus scrofa
Eurasia
wild boars
domestication
South East Asia
livestock
immune response
RNA
phylogeny
breeding
animals

Keywords

  • sus-scrofa
  • sequence
  • gene
  • receptor
  • locus
  • variants
  • complex
  • taste

Cite this

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title = "Analyses of pig genomes provide insight to porcine demography and evolution",
abstract = "For 10,000¿years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.",
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Analyses of pig genomes provide insight to porcine demography and evolution. / Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Bosse, M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Dibbits, B.W.; Madsen, O.; Paudel, Y.

In: Nature, Vol. 491, 2012, p. 393-398.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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AU - Groenen, M.A.M.

AU - Megens, H.J.W.C.

AU - Frantz, L.A.F.

AU - Bosse, M.

AU - Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.

AU - Dibbits, B.W.

AU - Madsen, O.

AU - Paudel, Y.

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AB - For 10,000¿years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.

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