An Investigation of Polyamides Based on Isoidide-2,5-dimethyleneamine as a Green Rigid Building Block with Enhanced Reactivity

J. Wu, L. Jasinska-Walc, D. Dudenko, A. Rozanski, M.R. Hansen, D.S. van Es, C.E. Koning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Novel, semicrystalline polyamides and copolyamides were synthesized from a new carbohydrate-based diamine, namely isoidide-2,5-dimethyleneamine (IIDMA). In combination with 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (1,6-HDA) as well as the biobased sebacic acid (SA) or brassylic acid (BrA), the desired copolyamides were obtained via melt polymerization of the nylon salts followed by a solid-state polycondensation (SSPC) process. Depending on the chemical compositions, the number average molecular weights (Mn) of the polyamides were in the range of 4000–49000 g/mol. With increasing IIDMA content in the synthesized copolyamides, their corresponding glass transition temperatures (Tg) increased from 50 °C to approximately 60–67 °C while the melting temperatures (Tm) decreased from 220 to 160 °C. The chemical structures of the polyamides were analyzed by NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analyses revealed the semicrystalline character of these novel copolyamides. Variable-temperature (VT) 13C{1H} cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR and FT-IR techniques were employed to study the crystal structures as well as the distribution of IIDMA moieties over the crystalline and amorphous phases of the copolyamides. The performed ab initio calculations reveal that the stability of the IIDMA moieties is due to a pronounced “boat” conformation of the bicyclic rings. The incorporation of methylene segments in between the isohexide group and the amide groups enables the hydrogen bonds formation and organization of the polymer chain fragments. Given the sufficiently high Tm values (200 °C) of the copolyamides containing less than 50% of IIDMA, these biobased semicrystalline copolyamides can be useful for engineering plastic applica
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9333-9346
JournalMacromolecules
Volume45
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Keywords

  • solid-state-nmr
  • infrared temperature
  • renewable resources
  • brill transition
  • isosorbide
  • isohexide
  • polymers
  • mas
  • spectroscopy
  • crystals

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