An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: I. Presentation of the programme and measurement of boar taint compounds with different analytical procedures

M. Bonneau, A.J. Kempster, R. Claus, C. Claudi-Magnussen, A. Diestre, E. Tornberg, P. Walstra, P. Chevillon, U. Weiler, G.L. Cook

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    Abstract

    An international study, involving 11 participants in 7 European countries, was conducted to provide scientific evidence for an objective measurement of boar taint in entire male pigs and its possible variation between countries. The specific objectives were to determine the respective contributions of androstenone and skatole to boar taint and their possible variations according to production systems and consumer populations. Over 4000 entire male pigs and 200 gilts were raised and slaughtered in 6 countries. Meat samples were taken from the loin and backfat samples were used for the rapid measurement of androstenone and skatole. A sub-population of 377 entire males and 42 gilts was then selected in such a way as to represent all combinations of skatole and androstenone levels. Androstenone and skatole levels in the selected samples were checked, using established reference methods. Meat samples from the selected animals were used for sensory evaluation by trained panels and for consumer surveys in 7 European countries. The present paper gives a general presentation of the programme and reports the main characteristics of the samples. Three companion papers present the results of the evaluation by trained sensory panels [Dijksterhuis, G., Engel, B., Walstra, P., Font i Furnols, M., Agerhem, H., Fisher, K., Oliver, M. A., Claudi-Magnussen, C., Siret, F., Béague, M. P., Homer, D. B., & Bonneau, M. (2000). An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: II. Sensory evaluation by trained panels in seven European countries. Meat Science 54, 261-269], the results of the consumer surveys [Matthews, K. R., Homer, D. B., Punter, P., Béague, M. P., Gispert, M., Kemspter, A. J., Agerhem, H., Claudi-Magnussen, C., Fischer, K., Siret, F., Leask, H., Font i Furnols, M., & Bonneau, M. (2000). An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: III. Consumer survey in seven European countries. Meat Science, 54, 271-283] and the main conclusions and recommendations [Bonneau, M., Walstra, P., Claudi-Magnussen, C., Kempster, A. J., Tornberg, E., Fischer, K., Diestre, A., Siret, F., Chevillon, P., Claus, R., Dijksterhuis, G., Punter, P., Matthews, K. R., Agerhem, H., Béague, M. P., Oliver, M. A., Gispert, M., Weiler, U., von Seth, G., Leask, H., Font i Furnols, M., Homer, D. B., & Cook, G. L. (2000). An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: IV. Simulation studies on consumer dissatisfaction with entire male pork and the effect of sorting out carcasses on the slaughter line, main conclusions and recommendations. Meat Science, 54, 285-295]. Seasonal effects and differences between countries in skatole and androstenone levels are presented elsewhere [Walstra, P., Claudi-Magnussen, C., Chevillon, P., von-Seth, G., Diestre, A., Matthews, K. R., Homer, D. B., & Bonneau, M. (in press). An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: Levels of androstenone and skatole according to country and season. Livestock Production Science]. A supplementary paper considers the effects of human sensitivity to androstenone and skatole on the consumer acceptance of entire male pork [Weiler, U., Font i Furnols, M., Fischer, K., Kemmer, H., Oliver, M. A., Gispert, M., Dobrowolski, A., & Claus, R. (in press). Influence of differences in sensitivity of Spanish and German consumers to perceive androstenone on the acceptance of boar meat differing in skatole and androstenone concentrations. Meat Science]. A study of possible other compounds contributing to boar taint was also carried out within this programme.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)251-259
    JournalMeat Science
    Volume54
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2000

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  • Research Output

    • 59 Citations
    • 3 Article

    An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: II. Sensory evaluation by trained panels in seven European countries

    Dijksterhuis, G. B., Engel, B., Walstra, P., Font i Furnols, M., Agerhem, H., Fischer, K., Oliver, M. A., Claudi-Magnussen, C., Siret, F., Béague, M. P., Homer, D. B. & Bonneau, M., Mar 2000, In : Meat Science. 54, p. 261-269

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    67 Citations (Scopus)
  • 65 Citations (Scopus)

    An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: levels of androstenone and skatole by country and season

    Walstra, P., Claudi-Magnussen, C., Chevillon, P., von Seth, G., Diestre, A., Matthews, K. R., Homer, D. B. & Bonneau, M., 1999, In : Livestock Production Science. 62, 1, p. 15-28

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

  • 115 Citations (Scopus)

    Cite this

    Bonneau, M., Kempster, A. J., Claus, R., Claudi-Magnussen, C., Diestre, A., Tornberg, E., Walstra, P., Chevillon, P., Weiler, U., & Cook, G. L. (2000). An international study on the importance of androstenone and skatole for boar taint: I. Presentation of the programme and measurement of boar taint compounds with different analytical procedures. Meat Science, 54(3), 251-259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00102-3