An Integrated Weed Management framework: A pan-European perspective

Marleen Riemens*, Mette Sønderskov, Anna Camilla Moonen, Jonathan Storkey, Per Kudsk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Initiatives to reduce the reliance of agriculture on pesticides, including the European Union (EU) Directive 2009/128/EC on the sustainable use of pesticides (SUD), have yet to lead to widespread implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles. Developments in weed management have strongly focused on increasing the efficiency of herbicides or substituting herbicides with other single tactics such as mechanical control. To increase sustainability of agricultural systems in practice, a paradigm shift in weed management is needed: from a single tactic and single growing season approach towards holistic integrated weed management (IWM) considering more than a single cropping season and focusing on management of weed communities, rather than on control of single species. To support this transition, an IWM framework for implementing a system level approach is presented. The framework consists of five pillars: diverse cropping systems, cultivar choice and establishment, field and soil management, direct control and the cross-cutting pillar monitoring and evaluation. IWM is an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) and adopting IWM will serve as a driver for the development of sustainable agricultural systems of the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126443
JournalEuropean Journal of Agronomy
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • Agroecology
  • Diversification
  • Holistic weed management
  • Weed communities


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