The surface electric properties of the commercially available silica, Monospher 1000 (Fa. Merck), have been studied by conductivity and ESA (electrokinetic sonic amplitude) experiments. It could be shown that accounting for the contribution of the stagnant layer to surface conductivity is indispensable in the interpretation of electrokinetic data at low ionic strength. A general method has been put forward which allows to take into account the total, experimentally accessible surface conductivity in the evaluation of ESA data of moderately concentrated suspensions. This includes additional conductivity measurements which serve for the independent estimation of the total relative surface conductivity. The resulting zeta-potentials are clearly higher than those obtained after neglecting the contribution of the stagnant layer to surface conductivity. In addition, the ionic mobilities of potassium and magnesium in the hydrodynamically stagnant layer have been investigated in some detail. It has been found that the ionic mobility of potassium is of the same order of magnitude as in the bulk solution while the mobility of magnesium is significantly reduced.
Löbbus, M., Sonnfeld, J., van Leeuwen, H. P., Vogelsberger, W., & Lyklema, J. (2000). An improved method for calculating zeta-potentials from measurements of the electrokinetic sonic amplitude. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 229, 174-183. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2000.6980