Amino acid utilization and body composition of growing pigs fed processed soybean meal or rapeseed meal with or without amino acid supplementation

T.G. Hulshof, A.F.B. van der Poel, W.H. Hendriks, P. Bikker*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Feed ingredients used in swine diets are often processed to improve nutritional value. However, (over-)processing may result in chemical reactions with amino acids (AAs) that decrease their ileal digestibility. This study aimed to determine effects of (over-)processing of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) on post-absorptive utilization of ileal digestible AAs for retention and on body AA composition of growing pigs. Soybean meal and RSM were processed by secondary toasting in the presence of lignosulfonate to obtain processed soybean meal (pSBM) and processed rapeseed meal (pRSM). Four diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM or pRSM as sole protein source. Two additional diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to similar standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA level as the SBM or RSM diet. These diets were used to verify that processing affected AA retention by affecting ileal AA digestibility rather than post-absorptive AA utilization. The SID AA levels of the protein sources were determined in a previous study. In total, 59 pigs were used (initial BW of 15.6±0.7 kg) of which five were used to determine initial body composition at the start of the experiment. In total, 54 pigs were fed one of six experimental diets and were slaughtered at a BW of 40 kg. The organ fraction (i.e. empty organs plus blood) and carcass were analyzed separately for N and AA content. Post-absorptive AA utilization was calculated from AA retention and SID AA intake. An interaction between diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, and protein source was observed for CP content in the organ fraction, carcass and empty body and for nutrient retention. Processing reduced CP content and nutrient retention more for SBM than for RSM. Moreover, processing reduced (P<0.001) the lysine content in the organ fraction for both protein sources. Supplementing crystalline AA ameliorated the effect of processing on these variables. Thus, the data indicated that processing affected retention by reducing digestibility. Correcting AA retention for SID AA intake was, therefore, expected to result in similar post-absorptive AA utilization which was observed for the RSM diets. However, post-absorptive AA utilization was lower for the pSBM diet than for the SBM diet which might be related to an imbalanced post-absorptive AA supply. In conclusion, processing negatively affected nutrient retention for both protein sources and post-absorptive utilization of SID AA for retention for SBM. Effects of processing were compensated by supplementing crystalline AA.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1125-1135
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • amino acid
  • body composition
  • nutrient retention
  • post-absorptive utilization
  • toasting with lignosulfonate


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