Amino acid profiles of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food

B. Han, F.M. Rombouts, M.J.R. Nout

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sufu is a Chinese soybean cheese-like product obtained by solid-state fungal fermentation and ripening of tofu. The resulting "pehtze" is salted, followed by maturation in brine. Total (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles were determined during consecutive stages of sufu manufacture, i.e., tofu, pehzte (fungal fermented tofu), salted pehtze and in white, red and grey sufu, ripening in dressing mixtures of different salt content (8%, 11%, and 14% w/w). TAA in tofu, pehtze and salted pehtze totalled 547, 551 and 351 mg/g dry matter, respectively. FAA increased from total 1.3 to 15.6 mg/g dm in pehtze after fermentation of tofu by Actinomucor elegans and to 11.9 mg/g dm in salted pehtze. During ripening up to 80 days, total FAA in red sufu increased from 28 to 88 mg/g (8% salt), 28-63 mg/g (11% salt) or 26-42 mg/g (14% salt). In white sufu the levels of FAA were generally higher and the effect of salt was less inhibitory. Levels of FAA in white sufu increased in 80 days from 33 to 104 mg/g (8% salt), 27-92 mg/g (11% salt) and 19-73 mg/g (14% salt). The pattern of essential amino acids compared favourably with those of eggs and cow's milk. While FAA increased during ripening of red and white sufu, the ratio of each amino acid remained essentially constant, and glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, alanine, phenylalanine and lysine were found in large quantities. However, in grey sufu the ratio was different, with large proportions of leucine, alanine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine found after ripening. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)689-698
JournalJournal of Food Composition and Analysis
Volume17
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Fingerprint

Soybeans
tofu
Soy Foods
free amino acids
Salts
soybeans
salts
Amino Acids
Food
amino acids
ripening
phenylalanine
alanine
leucine
lissamine rhodamine B
Phenylalanine
Leucine
Alanine
Fermentation
fermentation

Keywords

  • glycine-max curds
  • soya bean curd
  • volatile components
  • protein
  • ethanol
  • peptides
  • quality
  • flavor

Cite this

Han, B. ; Rombouts, F.M. ; Nout, M.J.R. / Amino acid profiles of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food. In: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2004 ; Vol. 17, No. 6. pp. 689-698.
@article{222417fdd0574328816f611b10fc7d1a,
title = "Amino acid profiles of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food",
abstract = "Sufu is a Chinese soybean cheese-like product obtained by solid-state fungal fermentation and ripening of tofu. The resulting {"}pehtze{"} is salted, followed by maturation in brine. Total (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles were determined during consecutive stages of sufu manufacture, i.e., tofu, pehzte (fungal fermented tofu), salted pehtze and in white, red and grey sufu, ripening in dressing mixtures of different salt content (8{\%}, 11{\%}, and 14{\%} w/w). TAA in tofu, pehtze and salted pehtze totalled 547, 551 and 351 mg/g dry matter, respectively. FAA increased from total 1.3 to 15.6 mg/g dm in pehtze after fermentation of tofu by Actinomucor elegans and to 11.9 mg/g dm in salted pehtze. During ripening up to 80 days, total FAA in red sufu increased from 28 to 88 mg/g (8{\%} salt), 28-63 mg/g (11{\%} salt) or 26-42 mg/g (14{\%} salt). In white sufu the levels of FAA were generally higher and the effect of salt was less inhibitory. Levels of FAA in white sufu increased in 80 days from 33 to 104 mg/g (8{\%} salt), 27-92 mg/g (11{\%} salt) and 19-73 mg/g (14{\%} salt). The pattern of essential amino acids compared favourably with those of eggs and cow's milk. While FAA increased during ripening of red and white sufu, the ratio of each amino acid remained essentially constant, and glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, alanine, phenylalanine and lysine were found in large quantities. However, in grey sufu the ratio was different, with large proportions of leucine, alanine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine found after ripening. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "glycine-max curds, soya bean curd, volatile components, protein, ethanol, peptides, quality, flavor",
author = "B. Han and F.M. Rombouts and M.J.R. Nout",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.1016/j.jfca.2003.09.012",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
pages = "689--698",
journal = "Journal of Food Composition and Analysis",
issn = "0889-1575",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "6",

}

Amino acid profiles of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food. / Han, B.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

In: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 17, No. 6, 2004, p. 689-698.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Amino acid profiles of sufu, a Chinese fermented soybean food

AU - Han, B.

AU - Rombouts, F.M.

AU - Nout, M.J.R.

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Sufu is a Chinese soybean cheese-like product obtained by solid-state fungal fermentation and ripening of tofu. The resulting "pehtze" is salted, followed by maturation in brine. Total (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles were determined during consecutive stages of sufu manufacture, i.e., tofu, pehzte (fungal fermented tofu), salted pehtze and in white, red and grey sufu, ripening in dressing mixtures of different salt content (8%, 11%, and 14% w/w). TAA in tofu, pehtze and salted pehtze totalled 547, 551 and 351 mg/g dry matter, respectively. FAA increased from total 1.3 to 15.6 mg/g dm in pehtze after fermentation of tofu by Actinomucor elegans and to 11.9 mg/g dm in salted pehtze. During ripening up to 80 days, total FAA in red sufu increased from 28 to 88 mg/g (8% salt), 28-63 mg/g (11% salt) or 26-42 mg/g (14% salt). In white sufu the levels of FAA were generally higher and the effect of salt was less inhibitory. Levels of FAA in white sufu increased in 80 days from 33 to 104 mg/g (8% salt), 27-92 mg/g (11% salt) and 19-73 mg/g (14% salt). The pattern of essential amino acids compared favourably with those of eggs and cow's milk. While FAA increased during ripening of red and white sufu, the ratio of each amino acid remained essentially constant, and glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, alanine, phenylalanine and lysine were found in large quantities. However, in grey sufu the ratio was different, with large proportions of leucine, alanine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine found after ripening. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

AB - Sufu is a Chinese soybean cheese-like product obtained by solid-state fungal fermentation and ripening of tofu. The resulting "pehtze" is salted, followed by maturation in brine. Total (TAA) and free amino acid (FAA) profiles were determined during consecutive stages of sufu manufacture, i.e., tofu, pehzte (fungal fermented tofu), salted pehtze and in white, red and grey sufu, ripening in dressing mixtures of different salt content (8%, 11%, and 14% w/w). TAA in tofu, pehtze and salted pehtze totalled 547, 551 and 351 mg/g dry matter, respectively. FAA increased from total 1.3 to 15.6 mg/g dm in pehtze after fermentation of tofu by Actinomucor elegans and to 11.9 mg/g dm in salted pehtze. During ripening up to 80 days, total FAA in red sufu increased from 28 to 88 mg/g (8% salt), 28-63 mg/g (11% salt) or 26-42 mg/g (14% salt). In white sufu the levels of FAA were generally higher and the effect of salt was less inhibitory. Levels of FAA in white sufu increased in 80 days from 33 to 104 mg/g (8% salt), 27-92 mg/g (11% salt) and 19-73 mg/g (14% salt). The pattern of essential amino acids compared favourably with those of eggs and cow's milk. While FAA increased during ripening of red and white sufu, the ratio of each amino acid remained essentially constant, and glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, alanine, phenylalanine and lysine were found in large quantities. However, in grey sufu the ratio was different, with large proportions of leucine, alanine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine found after ripening. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KW - glycine-max curds

KW - soya bean curd

KW - volatile components

KW - protein

KW - ethanol

KW - peptides

KW - quality

KW - flavor

U2 - 10.1016/j.jfca.2003.09.012

DO - 10.1016/j.jfca.2003.09.012

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 689

EP - 698

JO - Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

JF - Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

SN - 0889-1575

IS - 6

ER -