Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

Viktoria Wagner*, Milan Chytrý, Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Jan Pergl, Stephan Hennekens, Idoia Biurrun, Ilona Knollová, Christian Berg, Kiril Vassilev, John S. Rodwell, Željko Škvorc, Ute Jandt, Jörg Ewald, Florian Jansen, Ioannis Tsiripidis, Zoltán Botta-Dukát, Laura Casella, Fabio Attorre, Valerijus Rašomavičius, Renata Ćušterevska & 13 others Joop H.J. Schaminée, Jörg Brunet, Jonathan Lenoir, Jens Christian Svenning, Zygmunt Kącki, Mária Petrášová-Šibíková, Urban Šilc, Itziar García-Mijangos, Juan Antonio Campos, Federico Fernández-González, Thomas Wohlgemuth, Viktor Onyshchenko, Petr Pyšek

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialAcademicpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the recently compiled European Vegetation Archive. After filtering (resulting in 83,396 plots; 39 regions; 1970–2015 time period), we analysed the species pool and frequency of alien vascular plants with respect to geographic origin and life-forms, and the levels of invasion across the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) woodland habitats. Results: We found a total of 386 alien plant species (comprising 7% of all recorded vascular plants). Aliens originating from outside of and from within Europe were almost equally represented in the species pool (192 vs. 181 species) but relative frequency was skewed towards the former group (77% vs. 22%) due, to some extent, to the frequent occurrence of Impatiens parviflora (21% frequency among alien plants). Phanerophytes were the most species-rich life-form (148 species) and had the highest representation in terms of relative frequency (39%) among aliens in the dataset. Apart from Europe (181 species), North America was the most important source of alien plants (109 species). At the local scale, temperate and boreal softwood riparian woodland (5%) and mire and mountain coniferous woodland (<1%) had the highest and lowest mean relative alien species richness (percentage of alien species per plot), respectively. Main conclusions: Our results indicate that European woodlands are prone to alien plant invasions especially when exposed to disturbance, fragmentation, alien propagule pressure and high soil nutrient levels. Given the persistence of these factors in the landscape, competitive alien plant species with a broad niche, including alien trees and shrubs, are likely to persist and spread further into European woodlands.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)969-981
JournalDiversity and Distributions
Volume23
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

introduced plants
woodlands
woodland
species pool
introduced species
vascular plant
vascular plants
propagule
vegetation
mire
ecosystem function
soil nutrient
information systems
softwood
niche
fragmentation
soil nutrients
provenance
information system
shrub

Keywords

  • EUNIS
  • exotic
  • forest
  • invasive plants
  • life-form
  • neophyte
  • non-native
  • origin
  • tree

Cite this

Wagner, V., Chytrý, M., Jiménez-Alfaro, B., Pergl, J., Hennekens, S., Biurrun, I., ... Pyšek, P. (2017). Alien plant invasions in European woodlands. Diversity and Distributions, 23(9), 969-981. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12592
Wagner, Viktoria ; Chytrý, Milan ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Pergl, Jan ; Hennekens, Stephan ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Knollová, Ilona ; Berg, Christian ; Vassilev, Kiril ; Rodwell, John S. ; Škvorc, Željko ; Jandt, Ute ; Ewald, Jörg ; Jansen, Florian ; Tsiripidis, Ioannis ; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán ; Casella, Laura ; Attorre, Fabio ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Ćušterevska, Renata ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Brunet, Jörg ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária ; Šilc, Urban ; García-Mijangos, Itziar ; Campos, Juan Antonio ; Fernández-González, Federico ; Wohlgemuth, Thomas ; Onyshchenko, Viktor ; Pyšek, Petr. / Alien plant invasions in European woodlands. In: Diversity and Distributions. 2017 ; Vol. 23, No. 9. pp. 969-981.
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abstract = "Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the recently compiled European Vegetation Archive. After filtering (resulting in 83,396 plots; 39 regions; 1970–2015 time period), we analysed the species pool and frequency of alien vascular plants with respect to geographic origin and life-forms, and the levels of invasion across the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) woodland habitats. Results: We found a total of 386 alien plant species (comprising 7{\%} of all recorded vascular plants). Aliens originating from outside of and from within Europe were almost equally represented in the species pool (192 vs. 181 species) but relative frequency was skewed towards the former group (77{\%} vs. 22{\%}) due, to some extent, to the frequent occurrence of Impatiens parviflora (21{\%} frequency among alien plants). Phanerophytes were the most species-rich life-form (148 species) and had the highest representation in terms of relative frequency (39{\%}) among aliens in the dataset. Apart from Europe (181 species), North America was the most important source of alien plants (109 species). At the local scale, temperate and boreal softwood riparian woodland (5{\%}) and mire and mountain coniferous woodland (<1{\%}) had the highest and lowest mean relative alien species richness (percentage of alien species per plot), respectively. Main conclusions: Our results indicate that European woodlands are prone to alien plant invasions especially when exposed to disturbance, fragmentation, alien propagule pressure and high soil nutrient levels. Given the persistence of these factors in the landscape, competitive alien plant species with a broad niche, including alien trees and shrubs, are likely to persist and spread further into European woodlands.",
keywords = "EUNIS, exotic, forest, invasive plants, life-form, neophyte, non-native, origin, tree",
author = "Viktoria Wagner and Milan Chytr{\'y} and Borja Jim{\'e}nez-Alfaro and Jan Pergl and Stephan Hennekens and Idoia Biurrun and Ilona Knollov{\'a} and Christian Berg and Kiril Vassilev and Rodwell, {John S.} and Željko Škvorc and Ute Jandt and J{\"o}rg Ewald and Florian Jansen and Ioannis Tsiripidis and Zolt{\'a}n Botta-Duk{\'a}t and Laura Casella and Fabio Attorre and Valerijus Rašomavičius and Renata Ćušterevska and Schamin{\'e}e, {Joop H.J.} and J{\"o}rg Brunet and Jonathan Lenoir and Svenning, {Jens Christian} and Zygmunt Kącki and M{\'a}ria Petr{\'a}šov{\'a}-Šib{\'i}kov{\'a} and Urban Šilc and Itziar Garc{\'i}a-Mijangos and Campos, {Juan Antonio} and Federico Fern{\'a}ndez-Gonz{\'a}lez and Thomas Wohlgemuth and Viktor Onyshchenko and Petr Pyšek",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1111/ddi.12592",
language = "English",
volume = "23",
pages = "969--981",
journal = "Diversity and Distributions",
issn = "1366-9516",
publisher = "Wiley",
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}

Wagner, V, Chytrý, M, Jiménez-Alfaro, B, Pergl, J, Hennekens, S, Biurrun, I, Knollová, I, Berg, C, Vassilev, K, Rodwell, JS, Škvorc, Ž, Jandt, U, Ewald, J, Jansen, F, Tsiripidis, I, Botta-Dukát, Z, Casella, L, Attorre, F, Rašomavičius, V, Ćušterevska, R, Schaminée, JHJ, Brunet, J, Lenoir, J, Svenning, JC, Kącki, Z, Petrášová-Šibíková, M, Šilc, U, García-Mijangos, I, Campos, JA, Fernández-González, F, Wohlgemuth, T, Onyshchenko, V & Pyšek, P 2017, 'Alien plant invasions in European woodlands', Diversity and Distributions, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 969-981. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12592

Alien plant invasions in European woodlands. / Wagner, Viktoria; Chytrý, Milan; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Pergl, Jan; Hennekens, Stephan; Biurrun, Idoia; Knollová, Ilona; Berg, Christian; Vassilev, Kiril; Rodwell, John S.; Škvorc, Željko; Jandt, Ute; Ewald, Jörg; Jansen, Florian; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Casella, Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Ćušterevska, Renata; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Brunet, Jörg; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens Christian; Kącki, Zygmunt; Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária; Šilc, Urban; García-Mijangos, Itziar; Campos, Juan Antonio; Fernández-González, Federico; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Onyshchenko, Viktor; Pyšek, Petr.

In: Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 23, No. 9, 2017, p. 969-981.

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Alien plant invasions in European woodlands

AU - Wagner, Viktoria

AU - Chytrý, Milan

AU - Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja

AU - Pergl, Jan

AU - Hennekens, Stephan

AU - Biurrun, Idoia

AU - Knollová, Ilona

AU - Berg, Christian

AU - Vassilev, Kiril

AU - Rodwell, John S.

AU - Škvorc, Željko

AU - Jandt, Ute

AU - Ewald, Jörg

AU - Jansen, Florian

AU - Tsiripidis, Ioannis

AU - Botta-Dukát, Zoltán

AU - Casella, Laura

AU - Attorre, Fabio

AU - Rašomavičius, Valerijus

AU - Ćušterevska, Renata

AU - Schaminée, Joop H.J.

AU - Brunet, Jörg

AU - Lenoir, Jonathan

AU - Svenning, Jens Christian

AU - Kącki, Zygmunt

AU - Petrášová-Šibíková, Mária

AU - Šilc, Urban

AU - García-Mijangos, Itziar

AU - Campos, Juan Antonio

AU - Fernández-González, Federico

AU - Wohlgemuth, Thomas

AU - Onyshchenko, Viktor

AU - Pyšek, Petr

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the recently compiled European Vegetation Archive. After filtering (resulting in 83,396 plots; 39 regions; 1970–2015 time period), we analysed the species pool and frequency of alien vascular plants with respect to geographic origin and life-forms, and the levels of invasion across the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) woodland habitats. Results: We found a total of 386 alien plant species (comprising 7% of all recorded vascular plants). Aliens originating from outside of and from within Europe were almost equally represented in the species pool (192 vs. 181 species) but relative frequency was skewed towards the former group (77% vs. 22%) due, to some extent, to the frequent occurrence of Impatiens parviflora (21% frequency among alien plants). Phanerophytes were the most species-rich life-form (148 species) and had the highest representation in terms of relative frequency (39%) among aliens in the dataset. Apart from Europe (181 species), North America was the most important source of alien plants (109 species). At the local scale, temperate and boreal softwood riparian woodland (5%) and mire and mountain coniferous woodland (<1%) had the highest and lowest mean relative alien species richness (percentage of alien species per plot), respectively. Main conclusions: Our results indicate that European woodlands are prone to alien plant invasions especially when exposed to disturbance, fragmentation, alien propagule pressure and high soil nutrient levels. Given the persistence of these factors in the landscape, competitive alien plant species with a broad niche, including alien trees and shrubs, are likely to persist and spread further into European woodlands.

AB - Aim: Woodlands make up a third of European territory and carry out important ecosystem functions, yet a comprehensive overview of their invasion by alien plants has never been undertaken across this continent. Location: Europe. Methods: We extracted data from 251,740 vegetation plots stored in the recently compiled European Vegetation Archive. After filtering (resulting in 83,396 plots; 39 regions; 1970–2015 time period), we analysed the species pool and frequency of alien vascular plants with respect to geographic origin and life-forms, and the levels of invasion across the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) woodland habitats. Results: We found a total of 386 alien plant species (comprising 7% of all recorded vascular plants). Aliens originating from outside of and from within Europe were almost equally represented in the species pool (192 vs. 181 species) but relative frequency was skewed towards the former group (77% vs. 22%) due, to some extent, to the frequent occurrence of Impatiens parviflora (21% frequency among alien plants). Phanerophytes were the most species-rich life-form (148 species) and had the highest representation in terms of relative frequency (39%) among aliens in the dataset. Apart from Europe (181 species), North America was the most important source of alien plants (109 species). At the local scale, temperate and boreal softwood riparian woodland (5%) and mire and mountain coniferous woodland (<1%) had the highest and lowest mean relative alien species richness (percentage of alien species per plot), respectively. Main conclusions: Our results indicate that European woodlands are prone to alien plant invasions especially when exposed to disturbance, fragmentation, alien propagule pressure and high soil nutrient levels. Given the persistence of these factors in the landscape, competitive alien plant species with a broad niche, including alien trees and shrubs, are likely to persist and spread further into European woodlands.

KW - EUNIS

KW - exotic

KW - forest

KW - invasive plants

KW - life-form

KW - neophyte

KW - non-native

KW - origin

KW - tree

U2 - 10.1111/ddi.12592

DO - 10.1111/ddi.12592

M3 - Editorial

VL - 23

SP - 969

EP - 981

JO - Diversity and Distributions

JF - Diversity and Distributions

SN - 1366-9516

IS - 9

ER -

Wagner V, Chytrý M, Jiménez-Alfaro B, Pergl J, Hennekens S, Biurrun I et al. Alien plant invasions in European woodlands. Diversity and Distributions. 2017;23(9):969-981. https://doi.org/10.1111/ddi.12592