Algorithm for a particle-based growth model for plant tissues

Joost H.J. van Opheusden*, Jaap Molenaar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


We have developed an algorithm for a particle-based model for the growth of plant tissues in three dimensions in which each cell is represented by a single particle, and connecting cell walls are represented as permanent bonds between particles. A sample of plant tissue is represented by a fixed network of bonded particles. If, and only if a cell divides, this network is updated locally. The update algorithm is implemented in a model where cell growth and division gives rise to forces between the cells, which are relaxed in steepest descent minimization. The same forces generate a pressure inside the cells, which moderates growth. The local nature of the algorithm makes it efficient computationally, so the model can deal with a large number of cells. We used the model to study the growth of plant tissues for a variety of model parameters, to show the viability of the algorithm.

Original languageEnglish
Article number181127
JournalRoyal Society Open Science
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018


  • Morphology
  • Simulation
  • Structure


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