Airborne virus sampling - Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)

Yang Yang Zhao, A.J.A. Aarnink, Wei Wang, T. Fabri, P.W.G. Groot Koerkamp, M.C.M. de Jong

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Abstract

Introduction. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger "AGI-30", OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Materials and Method. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine) were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers' physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. Results. Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96%) and the MD8 (100%) were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%). Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23%) was significantly lower than 100% (P <0.01), indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log(10) 50% egg infective dose (EID50) m(-3) for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the AGI-30, 2.5 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 degrees C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air samples cannot guarantee virus-free aerial environments, which means that transmission of infectious agents between farms may still occur even when no virus has been detected.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)464-471
JournalAnnals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Infectious bursal disease virus
infectious disease
samplers
sampler
Limit of Detection
virus
detection limit
Viruses
viruses
sampling
Aerosols
Air
tracer techniques
Virus Inactivation
Infectious Disease Transmission
aerosols
Livestock
Gelatin
Fluorescein
tracer

Keywords

  • bioaerosol samplers
  • collection efficiency
  • relative-humidity
  • newcastle-disease
  • influenza-virus
  • united-kingdom
  • vaccine virus
  • 2001 epidemic
  • transmission
  • enumeration

Cite this

@article{e1a5f02dff034b2ea1c551ab9366f58b,
title = "Airborne virus sampling - Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)",
abstract = "Introduction. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger {"}AGI-30{"}, OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Materials and Method. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine) were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers' physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. Results. Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96{\%}) and the MD8 (100{\%}) were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60{\%}). Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23{\%}) was significantly lower than 100{\%} (P <0.01), indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log(10) 50{\%} egg infective dose (EID50) m(-3) for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the AGI-30, 2.5 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 degrees C and 70{\%} was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air samples cannot guarantee virus-free aerial environments, which means that transmission of infectious agents between farms may still occur even when no virus has been detected.",
keywords = "bioaerosol samplers, collection efficiency, relative-humidity, newcastle-disease, influenza-virus, united-kingdom, vaccine virus, 2001 epidemic, transmission, enumeration",
author = "{Yang Zhao}, Yang and A.J.A. Aarnink and Wei Wang and T. Fabri and {Groot Koerkamp}, P.W.G. and {de Jong}, M.C.M.",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.5604/12321966.1120585",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "464--471",
journal = "Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine",
issn = "1232-1966",
publisher = "Institute of Agricultural Medicine",
number = "3",

}

Airborne virus sampling - Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). / Yang Zhao, Yang; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Wang, Wei; Fabri, T.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; de Jong, M.C.M.

In: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2014, p. 464-471.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Airborne virus sampling - Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)

AU - Yang Zhao, Yang

AU - Aarnink, A.J.A.

AU - Wang, Wei

AU - Fabri, T.

AU - Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

AU - de Jong, M.C.M.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Introduction. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger "AGI-30", OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Materials and Method. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine) were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers' physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. Results. Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96%) and the MD8 (100%) were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%). Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23%) was significantly lower than 100% (P <0.01), indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log(10) 50% egg infective dose (EID50) m(-3) for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the AGI-30, 2.5 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 degrees C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air samples cannot guarantee virus-free aerial environments, which means that transmission of infectious agents between farms may still occur even when no virus has been detected.

AB - Introduction. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger "AGI-30", OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Materials and Method. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine) were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers' physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. Results. Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96%) and the MD8 (100%) were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%). Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23%) was significantly lower than 100% (P <0.01), indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log(10) 50% egg infective dose (EID50) m(-3) for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the AGI-30, 2.5 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log(10) EID50 m(-3) for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 degrees C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air samples cannot guarantee virus-free aerial environments, which means that transmission of infectious agents between farms may still occur even when no virus has been detected.

KW - bioaerosol samplers

KW - collection efficiency

KW - relative-humidity

KW - newcastle-disease

KW - influenza-virus

KW - united-kingdom

KW - vaccine virus

KW - 2001 epidemic

KW - transmission

KW - enumeration

U2 - 10.5604/12321966.1120585

DO - 10.5604/12321966.1120585

M3 - Article

VL - 21

SP - 464

EP - 471

JO - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine

JF - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine

SN - 1232-1966

IS - 3

ER -