Air and water qualities around small ruminant houses in Central Java - Indonesia

I.G.S. Budisatria, H.M.J. Udo, A.J. van der Zijpp, T.W. Murti, E. Baliarti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


There is a general concern that livestock can have a profound effect on the environment, also in smallholder production systems. This paper presented the impact of small ruminants on the quality of air and water in and around small ruminant houses. In total, 27 small ruminant houses from the three agro-ecological zones, lowlands, middle zone and uplands, in the Province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, were monitored to investigate gas emissions and water pollution. Air samples were taken by using a gas catching tool filled with absorbents for gases. The gases mainly consisted of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, dihydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide and hydrocarbons. Groundwater samples were collected from the farmers¿ wells, adjacent to the small ruminants houses. The main water chemical parameters analysed were pH, turbidity, iron, fluoride, calcium carbonate, chloride, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, dihydrogen sulphide, and organic matter, while the bacterial indicators were faecal coliform and total coliform. Gas concentrations in the air were highest inside the houses, while around the houses their concentrations decreased rapidly on both the tailwind and headwind side. The concentrations of the gases were below the admissible levels assessed by the local government, except hydrocarbons in the middle zone, which was probably related to the storage of the manure inside the houses. The impact of small ruminants on water pollution was much greater than on air pollution. Some of the physico-chemical parameters showed high concentrations and nearly reached the admissible limit. The water sources had very high levels of faecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria, two groups of bacteria used as indicators for water contamination caused by manure. It can be concluded that, in Central Java, management and housing of small ruminants close to the family quarters causes little environmental problems; however, attention should be paid to water quality
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-63
JournalSmall Ruminant Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2007


  • livestock
  • contamination
  • area
  • agriculture
  • groundwater
  • association
  • wells
  • swine


Dive into the research topics of 'Air and water qualities around small ruminant houses in Central Java - Indonesia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this